Presentation on theme: "Citizenship and the Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Citizenship and the Constitution 9.1 Understanding the Constitution
2 The Federal System REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY DELEGATED POWERS Leaders who are chosen by the peopleDELEGATED POWERSGranted powersELASTIC CLAUSECongress can stretch its power to address unexpected issuesRESERVED POWERSPower held by the state governments such as holding local elections and educationCONCURRENT POWERSShared powers such as taxing, borrowing money, and enforcing laws.
3 The Three Branches LEGISLATIVE BRANCH They make the laws HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVESConsists of 435 membersRepresentatives are based on populationA CENSUS, or population count is taken every 10 years.Members are elected every two yearsYou must be at least 25 years old, live in the state, and be a US citizen for 7 years.
4 THERE IS NO LIMIT TO HOW MANY TIMES YOU MAY BE ELECTED TO CONGRESS. The Three BranchesSENATEConsists of 100 members, two from each stateMembers are elected every 6 yearsYou must be at least 30 years old, live in the state, and be a US citizen for 9 yearsTHERE IS NO LIMIT TO HOW MANY TIMES YOU MAY BE ELECTED TO CONGRESS.
5 The Three BranchesThe majority party had the most members in each houseThe minority party has lessSPEAKER OF THE HOUSE- runs the houseVICE PRESIDENT runs the Senate and cannot vote except for in a tieCongress is divided into COMMITTEES that specialize in certain types of lawsCongress begins its meeting each year in the first week of January.
6 The Three Branches THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH IMPEACHMENT This branch enforces the lawTo become president, you must be native born, a US citizen, at least 35 years old and have lived in the US for the last 14 years. It is the same for the Vice PresidentElections are held every 4 yearsThe president is limited to 2 terms or 10 yearsThe vice president may take over for the presidentIMPEACHMENTThe house of reps. Can vote to bring charges against the presidentCongress may remove him form office.
7 Working with Congress The President Must be Able to work with Congress VETOPresident may cancel a law that Congress passesCongress needs 2/3 majority to override the vetoEXECUTIVE ORDERPresidents can stretch this power in an emergencyThis has the power of lawIt may deal with the constitution, treaties, or laws.
8 Working with Congress PARDON CABINET President may grant freedom from punishment to persons facing criminal chargesCABINETSelected officials who advise the president of important matters14 departments handle most of the executive branch’s workThe president has the power to send US troops, but only Congress can declare war
9 The Three Branches JUDICIAL BRANCH It interprets the law A Federal court may strike down any state law found to be unconstitutionalThe president makes all appointments to federal courtsAppointment are for lifeEach state has at least on federal court to handle federal cases.
10 The Supreme CourtThousands of cases are sent to be heard, but the S.C. only hears about 100 per yearCases that are heard usually deal with the constitution or great public interest issuesCongress decided how many justices sit on the courtIt usually is 9All of the justices have been attorney, but do not have to be
11 Supreme Court THURGOOD MARSHALL (1967) SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR First African American JusticeSANDRA DAY O’CONNORFirst female Justice (1981)
12 Citizenship and the Constitution 9.2 The Bill of Rights
13 The First Amendment The most basic rights of citizens Freedom of religion, press, speech, assembly, and petition-make a request to governmentRELGIONSThe govt cannot favor any religion over another.We have no official state religionSPEECHThe Constitution does not allow slander or anything that endangers public safety.
14 The First Amendment PRESS ASSEMBLY PETITION You have the right to express ideas and viewsASSEMBLYGroups may gather as long as they are legal and peacefulPETITIONAllows Americans to show their dissatisfaction with a law or suggest new laws
15 Protecting Citizens 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th amendment allows for a state militia or National GuardIt also allows to bear arms3rd AmendmentKeeps the military form forcing citizens to provide housing4th amendmentRules against “illegal search and seizure”SEARCH WARRANTSAre needed to look through someone's property.
16 Protecting the Citizens 5th AmendmentDeals with DUE PROCESS (fair law)Must be accused of a crimeYou also may please the “5th” and not testify against yourselfGovt can also take your land as long as you receive a fair price.6th AmendmentCalls fro a quick public trialYou may also have an attorney
17 Protecting Citizens 7th amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment Allows juries to decide civil casesDeputes over money or property8th AmendmentAllows for defendants to post bailAlso bans “cruel and unusual punishment”9th AmendmentProtects other basic rights not listed in the constitution10th amendmentSay that states have rights and powers not listed in the constitution.
18 Amending the Constitution An amendment may be proposed by a 2/3 vote in each houseIt must be ratified by ¾ of the statesAn amendment may also be proposed by 2/3 of the state legislatures at a National ConventionIt must be ratified by ¾ of the states.
19 Citizenship and the Constitution 9.3 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
20 Becoming a US CitizenA person born in the US or a territory is a citizenNATURALIZED CITIZENPeople born in a foreign country and have one US parentThey must move to the US to become a citizenThey can lose their citizenshipIMMIGRANTSPeople who move permanently to a new countryThey can apply for naturalization after living in the US for 5 yearsAlso must be at least 18 years old and pass several testsFinally they must go before a naturalization court an take an oath of allegiance
21 Duties of CitizensFor a democracy to work, citizens must fulfill their civic responsibilitiesWe elect our leaders and those leaders make our lawsWe must know the laws and how they affect usWe are obligated to respect those in authorityGood citizen pay taxesTax day is April 15 every yearTaxes pay for public services
22 Duties of CitizensCitizens also protect and defend the nation from harmDRAFTMen must register at age 18This gives the government a list of men for warCitizens are called for jury dutyThey also testify in courtOur voice are head through POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEES- groups get money to help candidates who support certain issuesCitizens are committed helping others.Some examples are the American Red Cross, neighborhood watches, Habitat for Humanity, and the Boy and Girl scouts.