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Citizenship and the Constitution

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1 Citizenship and the Constitution
9.1 Understanding the Constitution

Leaders who are chosen by the people DELEGATED POWERS Granted powers ELASTIC CLAUSE Congress can stretch its power to address unexpected issues RESERVED POWERS Power held by the state governments such as holding local elections and education CONCURRENT POWERS Shared powers such as taxing, borrowing money, and enforcing laws.

3 The Three Branches LEGISLATIVE BRANCH They make the laws
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Consists of 435 members Representatives are based on population A CENSUS, or population count is taken every 10 years. Members are elected every two years You must be at least 25 years old, live in the state, and be a US citizen for 7 years.

The Three Branches SENATE Consists of 100 members, two from each state Members are elected every 6 years You must be at least 30 years old, live in the state, and be a US citizen for 9 years THERE IS NO LIMIT TO HOW MANY TIMES YOU MAY BE ELECTED TO CONGRESS.

5 The Three Branches The majority party had the most members in each house The minority party has less SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE- runs the house VICE PRESIDENT runs the Senate and cannot vote except for in a tie Congress is divided into COMMITTEES that specialize in certain types of laws Congress begins its meeting each year in the first week of January.

This branch enforces the law To become president, you must be native born, a US citizen, at least 35 years old and have lived in the US for the last 14 years. It is the same for the Vice President Elections are held every 4 years The president is limited to 2 terms or 10 years The vice president may take over for the president IMPEACHMENT The house of reps. Can vote to bring charges against the president Congress may remove him form office.

7 Working with Congress The President Must be Able to work with Congress
VETO President may cancel a law that Congress passes Congress needs 2/3 majority to override the veto EXECUTIVE ORDER Presidents can stretch this power in an emergency This has the power of law It may deal with the constitution, treaties, or laws.

8 Working with Congress PARDON CABINET
President may grant freedom from punishment to persons facing criminal charges CABINET Selected officials who advise the president of important matters 14 departments handle most of the executive branch’s work The president has the power to send US troops, but only Congress can declare war

9 The Three Branches JUDICIAL BRANCH It interprets the law
A Federal court may strike down any state law found to be unconstitutional The president makes all appointments to federal courts Appointment are for life Each state has at least on federal court to handle federal cases.

10 The Supreme Court Thousands of cases are sent to be heard, but the S.C. only hears about 100 per year Cases that are heard usually deal with the constitution or great public interest issues Congress decided how many justices sit on the court It usually is 9 All of the justices have been attorney, but do not have to be

First African American Justice SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR First female Justice (1981)

12 Citizenship and the Constitution
9.2 The Bill of Rights

13 The First Amendment The most basic rights of citizens
Freedom of religion, press, speech, assembly, and petition-make a request to government RELGIONS The govt cannot favor any religion over another. We have no official state religion SPEECH The Constitution does not allow slander or anything that endangers public safety.

You have the right to express ideas and views ASSEMBLY Groups may gather as long as they are legal and peaceful PETITION Allows Americans to show their dissatisfaction with a law or suggest new laws

15 Protecting Citizens 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th amendment
allows for a state militia or National Guard It also allows to bear arms 3rd Amendment Keeps the military form forcing citizens to provide housing 4th amendment Rules against “illegal search and seizure” SEARCH WARRANTS Are needed to look through someone's property.

16 Protecting the Citizens
5th Amendment Deals with DUE PROCESS (fair law) Must be accused of a crime You also may please the “5th” and not testify against yourself Govt can also take your land as long as you receive a fair price. 6th Amendment Calls fro a quick public trial You may also have an attorney

17 Protecting Citizens 7th amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment
Allows juries to decide civil cases Deputes over money or property 8th Amendment Allows for defendants to post bail Also bans “cruel and unusual punishment” 9th Amendment Protects other basic rights not listed in the constitution 10th amendment Say that states have rights and powers not listed in the constitution.

18 Amending the Constitution
An amendment may be proposed by a 2/3 vote in each house It must be ratified by ¾ of the states An amendment may also be proposed by 2/3 of the state legislatures at a National Convention It must be ratified by ¾ of the states.

19 Citizenship and the Constitution
9.3 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

20 Becoming a US Citizen A person born in the US or a territory is a citizen NATURALIZED CITIZEN People born in a foreign country and have one US parent They must move to the US to become a citizen They can lose their citizenship IMMIGRANTS People who move permanently to a new country They can apply for naturalization after living in the US for 5 years Also must be at least 18 years old and pass several tests Finally they must go before a naturalization court an take an oath of allegiance

21 Duties of Citizens For a democracy to work, citizens must fulfill their civic responsibilities We elect our leaders and those leaders make our laws We must know the laws and how they affect us We are obligated to respect those in authority Good citizen pay taxes Tax day is April 15 every year Taxes pay for public services

22 Duties of Citizens Citizens also protect and defend the nation from harm DRAFT Men must register at age 18 This gives the government a list of men for war Citizens are called for jury duty They also testify in court Our voice are head through POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEES- groups get money to help candidates who support certain issues Citizens are committed helping others. Some examples are the American Red Cross, neighborhood watches, Habitat for Humanity, and the Boy and Girl scouts.

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