Presentation on theme: "The Civil War. Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 O The Confederate States attack Fort Sumter, South Carolina, marking the start of the Civil War. O Victory:"— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War
Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 O The Confederate States attack Fort Sumter, South Carolina, marking the start of the Civil War. O Victory: Confederacy/South
Battle of Bull Run & Antietam O History Alive text pages 308 – 311 (not including “The New Realities of War”. O Write 9 Knows (1 from each section) and at least 3 Wonders
Battle of Bull Run July 1861 O Union troops planned to attack Richmond. O Rose Greenhow, a Washington social leader, warned Confederate troops by passing on a coded message smuggled in the curls of a young girl. O Stonewall Jackson – “Look, there is Jackson with his Virginian’s, standing still like a stone wall.”
Battle of Bull Run July 1861 How did Bull Run change the view of war for northerners and southerners? The north and south realized the struggle would not be easy. The war would be lengthy and difficult. Victory: South
Lincoln’s War Strategy in Action O Union Blockade O Most Southern ports were closed to foreign ships. O Dividing the Confederacy O Union General Grant tried to divide the Confederacy by gaining control of the Mississippi. He was successful in putting parts of Kentucky and Tennessee under Union control. O Union General McClellan failed in his attempt to take Richmond.
Battle of Antietam September 1862 O General Lee hoped to persuade Maryland to join the South. O Alarming Statistics: O Of the 75,000 Union troops, 2,100 were killed, 10,300 were wounded or missing. O Of the 52,000 Confederate troops, 2,770 were killed, 11,000 were wounded or missing. O More died in a single day than in the War of 1812 and the Mexican War combined.
Battle of Antietam September 1862 Importance of Battle: O first invasion of the Union/ North by the Confederacy/ South. O Bloodiest/deadliest single-day battle O Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation (America: The Story of Us Clip) Victory: Claimed as Union victory but seen as a “defeat for both armies.”
The Draft O In 1862, the Confederacy passed the nation’s first draft. O All white men, age 18 – 35 could be called for 3 years military service. O In 1863, the Union issued a similar draft, drafting ages 20 – 45. O A drafted man could pay a substitute to take his place. O Exemptions included pharmacists, teachers and slave owners of 20. O “ A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.”
Draft Riots O Riots broke out in the north. O Northerners resented being forced to fight to end slavery. O In NYC, New Yorkers burned draft offices and battled police. O Mobs attacked African American boarding houses, churches and orphanages, killing almost 100 African Americans O Clip: Gangs of New York - Draft RiotsGangs of New York - Draft Riots
Problems on the Home Front O Union 1. “Copperheads” were in favor of restoring peace instead of saving the Union or ending slavery. 2. Some were sympathetic to the Confederate cause. 3. People suspected of being disloyal were jailed without trial. 4. Draft Riots
Battle of Gettysburg July 1863 Video Clips: Knows (2) and Wonder (1) O America: The Story of Us O Animated Map Animated Map O Remember the Titans Remember the Titans History Alive Text: “The Battle of Gettysburg” p. 312 - 313
Battle of Gettysburg July 1863 O Union troops, under General Meade, occupied Cemetery Ridge, west of Gettysburg, PA. O Confederate General Lee ordered an all out attack on the Union. Pickett’s Charge led Confederate soldiers to reach the northern most point by the South in the Civil War. O Lee eventually had to withdraw to Virginia. From this point on, he would only wage a defensive war.
Gettysburg Address O Circle the section that relates to the Declaration of Independence. “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”
Gettysburg Address O Highlight/underline the line, “We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that the nation might live.” O Why did Lincoln go to Gettysburg? What did he say about about the men buried in the cemetery? The men gave their lives so that the nation could be preserved…
Gettysburg Address O Consecrate – dedicate, set apart as holy O Highlight/underline the line, “But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.” O What did the men who fought at Gettysburg already do for the newly found cemetery? The men who lost their lives fighting already dedicated the land as holy.
Gettysburg Address O Highlight/underline the line, “It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain…” O What did Lincoln want the people of the United States to do for the dead soldiers? To remember why these men lost their lives…. Continue fighting, making sure they died for a reason…
The Monitor and Merrimack March 1863 O Most notable naval battle of the Civil War O The Confederacy was attempting to end Union blockades of southern harbors. O First naval battle between iron clad steamships O Signaled the end of wooden warships Victory: Neither
Battle of Vicksburg and Sherman’s March to Sea O Use pages 315 “Control of the Mississippi” – 319 “The End at Appomattox” to complete The Battle of Vicksburg and Sherman’s March to Sea on the Important Battles of the Civil War Assignment. O Battle of Vicksburg O P. 315 “Control of the Mississippi” O P. 316 “Vicksburg” O Sherman’s March to Sea” O P. 318 “Total War” O P. 319 “Sherman’s March through Georgia” O P. 319 “The End at Appomattox”
Battle of Vicksburg May – July 1863 O The city of Vicksburg was located on a bluff overlooking the city of Vicksburg, making the city difficult to capture. O General Grant bombarded Vicksburg by land and Union gunboats bombarded Vicksburg by sea for 6 weeks. O To survive, Confederate soldiers ate horses, mules, dogs and rats. O “It had the properties of India rubber,” said one Confederate soldier, “and was worse than leather to digest.”
Battle of Vicksburg May – July 1863 O Why was gaining control of the Mississippi River important? O If the Union gained control of the Mississippi River, the South would be divided. O What led the south to surrender? O They were running low on food and supplies.
Problems on the Home Front O Confederacy 1. Imported goods disappeared from stores. 2. Invading Union armies destroyed crops and cut rail lines, making it difficult to supply food to soldiers and civilians. 3. Soldiers were dressed in “rags and tags”.
Sherman’s March to Sea May – December 1864 O How did Union troops use “total war” to defeat the enemy as they marched through Georgia? O Sherman’s troops destroyed everything they found of value. Fields were burned, houses robbed, food supplies destroyed. General Grant continued on to capture Richmond. Abraham Lincoln was reelected in 1864. Belief in “total war” War on the enemy’s will to fight and it’s ability to support an army.
Lee Surrenders O Richmond falls to Union troops in April of 1865. O General Lee to his officers, “There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths.” O General Grant, to stop his men from celebrating stated, “The war is over, the rebels are our countrymen again.” Terms of Surrender: GENEROUS 1.Confederate soldiers could go home if they promised to fight no longer. 2.They could take with them their horses and mules for spring planting. 3.Officers could keep their swords and weapons. 4.Food was sent to Lee’s men.
Lincoln’s 2 nd Inaugural Address How did Lincoln feel about Grant’s generous terms of surrender? How do you know? “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” Lincoln wanted to make peace with the South and rebuild the country.