Warm Up! 1.Why do you think the Union’s population was so much larger than the population in the Confederacy? 2.What Union advantages are portrayed in these graphs? 3.Why would the loss of lives in the Battles be so devastating to the Confederacy?
Warm Up! 1.What Union advantages are portrayed in these graphs? 2.After looking at these graphs, why do you think a Union blockade on the Southern ports was a good strategy? 3.Why would the loss of the control of the Mississippi River hurt the Confederacy?
Lincoln suspends habeas corpus (1862) habeas corpus is a person’s right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial After a string of draft riots in many northern cities, Lincoln decided to suspend habeas corpus. If someone opposed the war, they could be detained without a trial Lincoln suspended these common rights in an effort to stop anyone from resisting the Union’s cause
AntietamAntietam: September 1862 Lee marched into Maryland hoping that a Southern victory would convince the North to settle for peace, gain support from the British, and find food for his men The two armies fought at Antietam, which became the bloodiest one-day battle in American history (6,000 dead, 16,000 wounded) Lee is forced to retreat back into Virginia The Union victory led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation What might have happened if Lee defeated the Union Army at Antietam?
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln, amid growing war casualties, used the Union victory at Antietam to issue the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 and to punish the rebelling states. The Proclamation: -freed only those slaves in the states in rebellion -did not free the slaves in the border states -gave the Union Army another reason to fight: the liberation of slaves Which slave states were unaffected by the Proclamation? Why did Lincoln plan this?
Gettysburg (PA): July 1 st - 3 rd 1863 Lee again decided to invade the North in hope that the North would settle for peace Lee wanted supplies and food from the urban Union towns. Largest Battle of Civil War (160,000 men involved) The South loses 7,000 men in under 30 minutes of fighting Southern defeat and turning point of the war
· Over 40,000 soldiers were killed or wounded at Gettysburg. Casualties of the Battle of Gettysburg awaiting burial
Confederate soldiers on the Gettysburg Battlefield in an unfinished trench grave.
The view of Seminary Ridge seen from Cemetery Ridge. It was across these fields that Union soldiers repulsed the Confederates participating in the Pickett / Pettigrew Charge.
GettysburgGettysburg (PA): July 1 st -3 rd 1863 Lee retreated on July 4 th, having lost 1/3 of his entire fighting force The loss forces the South to fight a defensive war and strengthened the will of the North to continue the fight Why do you think Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the war?
Gettysburg Address In November 1863, Lincoln gave his now famous speech at Gettysburg to dedicate the Gettysburg National Cemetery Lincoln used the speech to redefine the purpose of fighting the war: the reunification of the Union http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gettysburgaddress.htm
VicksburgVicksburg (MS) July 4 th 1863 By 1863, Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River Grant launched a siege of the city in May 1863 cutting off it’s food supply and placing it under constant bombardment The Confederate forces surrender July 4 th 1863, which gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in half Which Confederate states were isolated from the rest of the South with the fall of Vicksburg?
Battle for Atlanta: August 1864 Sherman marched his army south towards Atlanta, a major railroad center in the South He ordered all civilians out of the city and then began to burn and destroy everything of military value Atlanta was the beginning of Sherman’s “March to the Sea” and helped the Republican Party gain political strength
Surrender at Appomattox Lee was taken over by Grant’s forces; Sherman on his way to meet Grant… With that news, Davis and other Confederate leaders abandon Confederate Capital April 9, 1865 – Lee and Grant arrange surrender at the Appomattox Court House
Surrender Terms Lincoln’s Decision –No need to further separate the Union –Lee’s soldiers were paroled and sent home… Was there a lot of punishment involved?
Social Changes Emancipation Proclamation only freed who??? Lincoln wanted Constitutional Amendment to abolish slavery – didn’t pass in 1864 1866 – Congress ratified the 13 th Amendment
Costs of War Human lives –360,000 Union Soldiers died –260,000 Confederate Soldiers died –500,000 Total Wounded –10% of population in military Monetary Costs –$3.3 Billion
Casualties of American Wars 1. World War II407,316 2. World War I116,708 3. Vietnamese Conflict58,168 4. Korean Conflict54,246 5. American Revolution4,435 6. Spanish-American War2,456 7. War of 18122,260 8. Mexican War1,733 9. Indian Wars1,000 10. Gulf War293 TOTAL648,615 How do the casualties of the Civil War compare to the casualties of other American wars?
Civil War Casualties Union 360,000 Confederate 260,000 TOTAL 620,000 There were nearly as many casualties in the Civil War as in all of America's other wars combined.