Presentation on theme: "Devar 1861-1865. 22.3 Bull Run: A Great Awakening Why were many Northerners surprised at the outcome of the Battle of Bull Run? Northerners expected."— Presentation transcript:
22.3 Bull Run: A Great Awakening Why were many Northerners surprised at the outcome of the Battle of Bull Run? Northerners expected a quick victory & an early end to the war. Instead, the Confederates defeated the Union troops & drove them back to Washington.
Stonewall Jackson Victory at Bull Run
Bull Run Creek
22.3 Bull Run: A Great Awakening How did women participate in the Civil War? Women ran farms & business, worked in factories, & became teachers & government workers. They also served in the military as nurses, messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers, & spies.
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair What was important about the Battle of Antietam? Robert E. Lee hoped that a victory at Antietam would convince Maryland to join the Confederacy & encourage European nation to support the South. Lee’s defeat at Antietam prevented him from accomplishing these objectives.
Robert E. Lee Confederate General
Hot Air Balloon
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair What hardships did Civil War soldiers face in combat? Death tolls were staggeringly high. Rifles, cannons, & artillery made it easy to kill from a distance. Inadequate medical attention meant soldiers frequently died from their wounds. Diseases also spread throughout the camps, killing huge #’s of soldiers.
Beds of Injured Soldiers
Emancipation Proclamation On January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This order declared slaves in all Confederate States were to be free. Confederate states ignored the order. The Emancipation Proclamation changed the war into a crusade for freedom.
Abraham Lincoln Issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.
22.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point Why was the Battle of Gettysburg considered a turning point in the Civil War? Lee, who hoped a victory in this northern city would convince the Union to ask for peace. Instead he lost 1/3 of his army during the battle. Afterward, he withdrew to Virginia & conducted only a defensive war on southern soil.
22.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point What problems developed on the Union home front during the war? On the home front, “Copperheads” opposed the war, believing peace was more important than preserving the Union. Other opponents were sympathetic to the Confederate cause. The draft forced men to fight in the war, and riots broke out as some of them protested.
22.6 Vicksburg: A Besieged City Why was the Union victory at Vicksburg important? The Union victory at Vicksburg meant that the Union controlled traffic on the Mississippi River, & that the South was divided.
Ulysses S. Grant Union General & Future President of the United States.
22.6 Vicksburg: A besieged City What problems developed on the Confederate home front during the war? Bombing & raids forced people to seek protection in hillside caves. B/C of the Union blockade on Southern ports, imported goods disappeared (were stolen) from stores. Invading Union forces cut RR lines & destroyed crops. (A.K.A. TOTAL WAR) Clothing wore out & had to be patched & repaired rather than being replaced.
22.7 Fort Wagener: African Americans Join the War What was important about the actions of the Massachusetts 54 th at Fort Wagner? The 54 th was an all African American regiment who fought during the war. Although the Massachusetts 54th was forced to stop their attack on Fort Wagner after losing almost ½ their men, the bravery of these African American soldiers won the respect of other Union soldiers.
22.7 Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War How did African Americans contribute to the Union war effort? African American regiments fought nearly 500 battles. Although poorly trained, equipped, and paid, they fought with great courage.
William H. Carney First African American to be awarded the medal of Honor.
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End What is meant by “total war”? What did the Union army do during their campaign to total war? “Total War” meant war on the enemy’s will to fight & ability to support an army. Union soldiers destroyed RR lines & everything of value. Houses were robbed, crops burned, & livestock killed.
William T. Sherman Union General who used Total War as a tactic to win the Civil War.
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End What terms did Grant offer Lee when he surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse? Confederate troops could go home if they promised to stop fighting. They were allowed to keep their horses & mules, which would be needed for spring planting. Officers would keep their swords & weapons. Grant ordered that food be sent to Lee’s army.