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Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and

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1 Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and
Reflections on Module 4 Close and Critical Reading

2 CCR Reflection Share with your table partners the result of your work with close and critical reading. What did you notice about the students while employing close and critical reading? engagement thinking sharing

3 Revisiting Fluency in Adolescent Literacy
Literacy in Action Module 5

4 Goals for Module 5 You will
Understand the importance of focusing on reading fluency Experience fluency instructional strategies and fluency assessment Develop a plan for supporting fluency development in MS and HS content area courses National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11 Discuss with Elaine == Add description

5 Fluency the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate automaticity rate/speed accuracy prosody proper intonation and expression variation in rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech (pitch, loudness, speed, rhythm, and pause), which provide the spoken equivalent of written text National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11 NIL References Fluency def 1, 16, 47-50 Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate speed, accuracy, proper intonation, and proper expression. Some researchers have found a relationship between fluency and text comprehension, which indicates the importance of fluency. Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension of the words is compromised as well.

6 Reading Fluency ~ A Bridge Between Decoding and Text Comprehension
Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension is compromised. National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11 NIL References Fluency def 1, 16, 47-50 Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate speed, accuracy, proper intonation, and proper expression. Some researchers have found a relationship between fluency and text comprehension, which indicates the importance of fluency. Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension of the words is compromised as well.

7 As fluent oral readers, we
chunk words into meaningful groups vary the pitch and the intonation patterns of our voice place stress on some words but not on others punctuate our speech with pauses and rising inflections to indicate thought breaks or questions Effective oral readers can also transfer these skills to silent reading. Literacy Strategies for Grades 4 – 12, Karen Tankersley ASCD 2005

8 Participant Engagement
Read a challenging (dense, unfamiliar) text Write a short summary Discuss challenges and fluency issues Select texts outside comfort zone of participants to ensure dysfluency. ACTIVITY #1

9 Participant Engagement
Identify position on Fluency Continuum Transition Chart Important Transitions Ch. 7 “Recognizing Change over Time in Fluent Reading” in Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006) Select texts outside comfort zone of participants to ensure dysfluency.

10 Important Transitions Ch
Important Transitions Ch. 7 “Recognizing Change over Time in Fluent Reading” in Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006)

11 Fluency Discussion Discuss the idea that “fluency is not a stage.” When have you been a less-than-fluent reader yourself? What strategies did you use to get through the difficult material? In what ways do you provide modeling and feedback to your students? Consider at least two strategies that you could use with students to provide modeling or feedback. To improve reading, students have to read more. How might you increase the amount of time that students actually spend reading in your classroom or school? Where do most of your students fall on the fluency rubric? What strategies are you using to ensure fluency development? Slides 11 and 17 serve similar purposes in different places of this discussion – decide on placement DISCUSSION #1 Find reference in Notes file

12 Fluency Challenges for Adolescent Readers Struggling readers
lack fluency, read slowly, and often stop to sound out words. may reread sections of texts to gain comprehension. may spend so much time and cognitive energy decoding individual words that their focus is drawn away from comprehension. “Important Transitions” Handout NIL references 1 and 20 Just notes could adapt to make bulleted slide OK to keep, summarizes

13 Factors Influencing Fluency
the level of text difficulty the degree of familiarity the reader has with the words, content, and genre of the text the amount of practice with the text the reader’s metacognitive abilities the reader’s motivation and engagement NIL references 1 and 20 Just notes could adapt to make bulleted slide placement of this s

14 Why should middle school teachers focus on fluency?
Bridge between word recognition and comprehension Fluent readers at MS Read wpm Have automatic word recognition skills Group words into meaningful phrases or chunks Read with expression Make few word identification errors and usually self-correct when they do make errors Understand what they read - Train students to read effortlessly – free to focus on comprehension Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency) Compare these numbers with those from the Florida Reads charts Add MMP site link May not need this slide Post Ch 8 Reading Teachers Sourcebook as resource in LIA Module 5

15 Building Reading Stamina
Increased reading volume → CCR “Being able to read complex text independently and proficiently is essential for high achievement in college and the workplace and important in numerous life tasks… if students cannot read challenging texts with understanding – if they have not developed the skill, concentration, and stamina to read such texts – they will read less in general. …’To grow, our students must read lots, and more specifically they must read lots of ‘complex’ texts—texts that offer them new language, new knowledge, and new modes of thought’(Adams)” CCSS Appendix A, p. 4

16 Six Dimensions of Fluency
Pausing the way reader’s voice is guided by punctuation Phrasing the way readers put words together in groups to represent the meaningful units of language Stress emphasis readers place on particular words (louder tone) to reflect the meaning as speakers would do in oral language Intonation way reader varies the voice in tone, pitch, and volume to reflect the meaning of the text (“expression”) Rate pace at which the reader moves through the text Integration the way reader consistently orchestrates pausing, phrasing, stress, intonation, and rate (Fountas and Pinnell Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, p. 69) Make a Bookmark for the 6 Dimensions Pausing refers to the way the reader’s voice is guided by punctuation (short breath at a comma; full stop with voice going down at periods and up at question marks; full stop at dashes). Phrasing refers to the way readers put words together in groups to represent the meaningful units of language. Phrased reading should sound like oral language, although more formal. Phrasing involves pausing at punctuation as well as at places in the text that do not have punctuation. Stress refers to the emphasis readers place on particular words (louder tone) to reflect the meaning as speakers would do in oral language. Intonation refers to the way the reader varies the voice in tone, pitch, and volume to reflect the meaning of the text – sometimes called “expression.” Rate refers to the pace at which the reader moves through the text. As appropriate rate moves along rapidly with a few slowdowns or stops and long pauses to solve words. If a reader has only a few short pauses for word solving and picks up the pace again, look at the overall rate. The pace is also appropriate to the text and purpose of the reading – not too fast and not too slow. Integration involves the way the reader consistently and evenly orchestrates pausing, phrasing, stress, intonation, and rate. The reader moves smoothly from one word to another, from one phrase to another, and from one sentence to another, incorporating pauses that are just long enough to perform their function. There is no space between words except as part of meaningful interpretation. When all dimensions of fluency are working together, the reader will be using expressions in a way that clearly demonstrates that he understands the text and is even thinking beyond the text. Figure 6-6 Six Dimensions of Fluency, p. 69

17 Reflection What conclusions can you make regarding the focus of fluency instruction in your building, department/grade level, and classroom? What activities do you include in your instruction that assist students in becoming fluent readers? Do I provide time for fluency instruction? In your building, department/grade level, and classroom, how do you monitor students’ fluency? From “News you Can Use - Reading Fluency: What, Why, and How?” by Mike Dunn Slides 11 and 16 serve similar purposes in different places of this discussion – decide on placement DISCUSSION #2

18 Perspectives on Fluency Instruction
Developmental View – focuses on acquisition of basic constituents of reading fluency - accuracy, pace, reading with expression - students develop fluency along with comprehension Linguistic View – focuses on how language works, including phrasing and intonation How phrases and sentences influence meaning Increased reading prosody Automaticity View – role of automaticity of basic component skills, and how students can instinctively associate what words look like with what they mean Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices, Pt. I Fluency Theory, Fluency Research, Ch. 5, B. Walker, K. Mokhtari, S. Sargent) p Notes from Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction) Each will be addressed in instruction

19 Perspectives on Fluency Instruction
Note: Bolded strategies included in Module 5 Developmental View - Shared Reading – Model Fluent Reading Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) focuses on improving comprehension Focuses on performance and word study Reread short passage several times Guided Reading -- Wide and Deep Reading – Responsive Reading Linguistic View Deep Reading Marking and Modeling Phrase Boundaries Sentence Combining Performance Reading (Readers’ Theatre, Choral, Recitation) Automaticity View - Repeated Readings Paired Reading Assisted Reading (Teacher, Tape, Peer) Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices, Pt. I Fluency Theory, Fluency Research, Ch. 5, B. Walker, K. Mokhtari, S. Sargent) p Notes from Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction) Each will be addressed in instruction Back side of Bookmark Bolded activities are included in this Module

20 Assessing Reading Fluency – Monitoring Fluency Development
Three components of fluency Accuracy - accurate decoding of words in text Automaticity - decoding words with minimal use of attentional resources Prosody - the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning. Rasinski – Assessing Reading Fluency

21 Assessment of Reading Fluency
Developmental View - Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP) Linguistic View Cloze Procedure NAEP Fluency Scale Automaticity View - Rate and Accuracy Assessment (CBM/ORF) Reading Fluency Revisited (Ch. 5, Fluency Theory, Fluency Research) p Use all three kinds of assessment for LIA Check to see where NAEP fits best – In Rasinski Chapter, NAEP is listed under Linguistic View

22 Model Fluent Oral Reading Shared Reading (Handout)
Pale Blue Dot (Excerpt) by Carl Sagan Read by Carl Sagan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nl5dlbCh8lY Just listen to first reading Note inflections, pauses, phrasing, emphasis For second reading, follow along with transcript (slightly different than GHR text) Rasinski – Assessing Reading Fluency Activity #2

23 Guided Highlighted Reading http://www.readingtothecore.com/ghr.html
Guided highlighted reading for Summary Author’s craft – text features Vocabulary Critical Analysis Addressed in Modules 2, 3, and 4 GHR prompts and activities included for some texts used for fluency development in Module 5 Texts will be used again in Module 6 – Beyond CCR and Assessment No activity here as we have done this in Modules 2, 3, 4 and will do more in 6 Need to note that these texts are also supported with GHR activities

24 Modeling and Repeated Reading
Students need to hear explicit models of fluent reading. Kelly Gallagher’s Reading Minute Teacher (later in year, student) shares an interesting short text (poetry, newspaper, magazine, excerpt from current novel) Models fluent reading Students listen, then write a one-sentence summary or thesis statement for the “Reading Minute” selection as described in Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini-Lessons for Middle and High School by Kelly Gallagher

25 Modeling and Repeated Reading
Students need to hear explicit models of fluent reading. Adapted Reading Minute Activity for Module 5 Collect readings appropriate to your content area Read orally to students one to five minutes every day Provide copies for students to follow along In pairs, students re-read the selection aloud (paired repeated reading) Students time paired reading; (note mistakes) Note number of words read in one minute on first and second reads (see example) Record WCPM on Fluency chart (Each student writes a one-sentence summary) Use this slide later after the chart has been introduced? Or just add this red section later?

26 Partner Reading (as described in Reading Teachers Sourcebook)
Students read and reread text with partners. Assign partners. Assign text on the instructional level of the lower-level reader. Teach partner reading routine. Partner 1 reads first paragraph. Partner follows along. Partner 2 reads the same paragraph. Students briefly discuss what they just read by retelling what happened or by identifying the main idea of the paragraph. Repeat steps 1-3 until passage is complete. Model Provide guided practice Provide independent practice Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency) Each of these repeated reading strategies include all of the elements – represent most promising fluency strategies for secondary struggling readers. Detail correction steps????

27 Adapted Reading Minute Activity for Module 5
Questions for student reflection of repeated or partner reading (in reading journal) Why do you think you made this mistake? Did it affect your understanding? Do you know what the word means? Does the word you said look like the one in the text? Did you correct the rough area? What could you do next time? From “Retrospective Miscue Analysis,” Gretchen Owocki Common Core Lesson Book, p Use this slide later after the chart has been introduced? Or just add this red section later?

28 Practice Paired Reading
Select from one of the texts in your handout. Practice reading your text silently for one minute. Find a reading buddy and take turns reading your selection. (one minute each) Provide feedback to one another (using student reflection questions)

29 Assessment of Reading Fluency
Developmental View - Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP) Linguistic View Cloze Procedure (deletions) Maze Procedure (choices) Maze Passage Generator, cut and paste content text) NAEP Fluency Scale Automaticity View - Rate and Accuracy Assessment (CBM/ORF) Reading Fluency Revisited (Ch. 5, Fluency Theory, Fluency Research) p Use all three kinds of assessment for LIA Check to see where NAEP fits best – In Rasinski Chapter, NAEP is listed under Linguistic View

30 Reading Rates End of Grade Oral Reading Silent Reading Rates (WPM) Rates (WPM) Figure 6-8, Oral Reading Rates, Ch. 6 “Understanding the Fluent Reader” Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006) Hiebert Compare with Florida targets

31 Progress Monitoring Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral Reading Fluency Assessment (CBM/ORF) Student reads passage for one minute while teacher or partner marks mistakes (or records reading for later teacher analysis) Determine WCPM Student Charts WCPM on Fluency Chart Accuracy = WCPM/WPM Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency) Condense Slides 37-39 Each of these repeated reading strategies include all of the elements – represent most promising fluency strategies for secondary struggling readers.

32 4 5 xxxxx 9/7 9/21 10/5 10/19 11/2 100 90 80 70 60 50 WCPM Errors
80 70 60 50 WCPM Errors 4 5 Title xxxxx Date 9/7 9/21 10/5 10/19 11/2

33 Measuring Accuracy and Rate in CBM/ORF
Select passage(s) ~ 250 words at student’s grade placement. Check using text readability formula. Student reads passage for one minute, aloud in normal way; tape-record the reading. Mark uncorrected errors (mispronunciations, substitutions, reversals, omissions, or words pronounced by the examiner after a wait of 2-3 seconds without an attempt or response from the student). Mark point in the text after one minute of reading. Repeat steps 1 and 2 with two different passages (optional); use the median or middle score for analysis. Determine accuracy by dividing WCPM by the total number of words read). Compare the student’s performance against the target norms in Table 1. Determine rate by calculating the total number of WCPM and comparing the student’s performance against the target norms in Table 2. Rasinski – Assessing Reading Fluency

34 Florida Oral Reading Fluency and MAZE Assessments (Grade-Level Resources)
Grades 6, 7, 8, HS MAZE Risk Levels ORF Risk Levels Florida Overview Handout Select Readings to include in session packets Reformat

35 “Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers
“Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers?” David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa Magpuri-Pavell Skim the article Note recommendations Homework – Carefully read this article Activity #3

36 “Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers
“Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers?” David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa Magpuri-Pavell, 2012 Dispelling misconceptions about fluency Multidimensional Fluency Scale Prosody and Silent Reading Comprehension scores Choosing materials for prosodic reading Wide and Deep Reading Assisted Reading Take Action – Choral Reading “Oral reading prosody is related to silent reading comprehension for secondary students”

37 Choose a short text (100-150 words) Provide a copy
“Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers?” Take Action – Choral Reading Choose a short text ( words) Provide a copy Teacher reads with expression Students join in choral reading Listen for rough spots (Audio record first and last reading) Choral Reading of “Compassion and the World” (Handout) Copied on back of handout #5 Activity #4

38 Assessment of Reading Fluency
- Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP) NAEP Fluency Scale “Use of each rubric assumes that teachers rating students’ reading have a good sense of grade-appropriate expression, volume, phrasing, smoothness, and pace in reading.” - Tim Rasinski Assessing Reading Fluency, Educational Service Material, ES 0414 Use all three kinds of assessment for LIA Check to see where NAEP fits best – In Rasinski Chapter, NAEP is listed under Linguistic View

39 Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Handout)
Students read grade-level passage (~250 words) Record reading; teacher later scores reading Assign a score (1 to 4 points) on each of 4 dimensions of fluency Expression and Volume Phrasing Smoothness Pace A score of ≥ 10 ~ making good progress in fluency A score of ≤ 8 ~ may need additional instruction in fluency “Oral reading prosody is related to silent reading comprehension for secondary students” – Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Pavell, 2012

40 NAEP Fluency Scale (Handout)
Holistic scoring Goal – score of 4 Assesses more than one dimension Phrasing Syntax preservation Expression

41 NAEP Fluency Scale NAEP Fluency Scale
Level Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Level Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Level Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three-or four- word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. Level Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three- word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. NAEP Fluency Scale Holistic – (when compared to multidimensional scale)

42 Features of Fluency Prosodic Features Pitch (high or low tone)
Loudness (soft of loud voice) Speed (fast of slow) Pause (short or long) Paralinguistic Features Whisper, breathiness, huskies, nasality, over articulation Examples of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features Clipped, elongated, louder, softer pause, even pitch, high pitch, low pitch, whisper, nasality, breathiness, lip rounding The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists, Fry and Kress (2006), List122 NIL References Fluency def 1, 16, 47-50 Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate speed, accuracy, proper intonation, and proper expression. Some researchers have found a relationship between fluency and text comprehension, which indicates the importance of fluency. Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension of the words is compromised as well.

43 Additional Oral Reading Activities
Sentence Tunes (List 125) Change the way we say something to change the meaning Multi-tuned sentences Supersegmental phonemes Shift emphasis Example sentences I did not say you stole my red hat. (Handout) Tom didn’t push George first. I didn’t tell Mom you spent the dollar. Other Oral Reading Activities (List 126) The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists , Fry and Kress (2006), List125 NIL References Fluency def 1, 16, 47-50 Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate speed, accuracy, proper intonation, and proper expression. Some researchers have found a relationship between fluency and text comprehension, which indicates the importance of fluency. Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension of the words is compromised as well.

44 Change Punctuation and Emphasis for Different Meaning
Save soap and waste paper. Woman without her man is helpless. Why did YOU drive to the store? Why did you DRIVE to the store? Why did you drive to the STORE?

45 Fluency as Addressed in MI Comprehensive Literacy Profile/Plan
Assessments NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale Multi-Dimensional Fluency Rubric Oral/Silent Reading Fluency CBM Strategies Guided Highlighted Reading Choral Reading Readers’ Theatre (Theater) Repeated Readings “Is Fluent, Expressive Reading Important for High School Readers?” Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Lavell Interventions – role of automaticity of basic component skills, and how students can instinctively associate what words look like with what they mean Repeated Readings for Juncture and Phrasing Notes from Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction)

46 Caveats about oral reading fluency in MS students
The most important outcome for students is that they understand and learn from the texts they read. If students have below-average fluency but demonstrate average or above comprehension, it may not be appropriate to spend considerable time on improving their rate of reading. Students who read above WCPM with 90 percent accuracy in grade-level text may benefit from time spent on enhancing their background knowledge, vocabulary, and/or comprehension rather than on fluency instruction. Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency)

47 Readers’ Theatre Readers speak clearly, use appropriate volume, read the text accurately and with expression. Members of the group cooperate; use rehearsal time wisely. Procedure Select materials to read. Develop the script. Assign roles. Practice, practice, practice Perform Discuss Readers’ Theater Resources Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency) Each of these repeated reading strategies include all of the elements – represent most promising fluency strategies for secondary struggling readers.

48 Readers’ Theatre Engage students in Readers’ Theatre or plays where the teacher is the coach and provides feedback on how the lines are delivered. Resources Chris Gustafson’s Acting Cool! Using Reader’s Theater to Teach Language Arts and Social Studies in Your Classroom Grades 5 -7

49 Additional Fluency Resources
Literacy Leader Fluency Resources Add slides to describe passport requirements Assignments Read to students ______ (modeling) Vary the student practice (reading minute with summary, repeated paired reading, choral reading, _____) Chart with _____ entries representing Accuracy /Rate == and journal entries with metacognitive log entries Discuss with Elaine – numbers of required entries, and other specifics


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