Presentation on theme: "Fluency Workshop By Tina Openshaw. What is Fluency? Fluency as defined by The National Reading Panel is “one of several critical factors necessary for."— Presentation transcript:
Fluency Workshop By Tina Openshaw
What is Fluency? Fluency as defined by The National Reading Panel is “one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension, but is often neglected in the classroom.” Fluency as defined by The National Reading Panel is “one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension, but is often neglected in the classroom.” National Reading Panel, (2011) What is Reading Fluency? National Reading Panel, retrieved April 12, 2011 from m#11 m#11 m#11
Why should I teach fluency? Fluency is the bridge between phonological decoding Fluency is the bridge between phonological decoding and comprehension. and comprehension. Dr. Tim Rasinski, Professor of Reading at Kent State University
Fluency is reading orally with Speed Speed Accuracy Accuracy Prosody - Prosody - (vocal expression) (vocal expression)
Fluency and Theory Lev Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky Language and Learning Theory Zone of Proximal Development Learning Theories Knowledgebase s-social-learning-theory.html s-social-learning-theory.html s-social-learning-theory.html
Fluency and Theory Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences Linguistics and Music ers.html ers.html
Fluency Strategies Paired reading Paired reading Repeated reading Repeated reading Oral reading Oral reading Choral reading Choral reading Small Group reading Small Group reading Tape/CD – assisted reading Tape/CD – assisted reading Echo reading Echo reading Class listening Class listening
Fluency Resources Poetry Poetry Rhymes and Songs Rhymes and Songs Joke books Joke books Readers Theatre Readers Theatre Books on tape/CD Books on tape/CD Fluency Workstations online at: ncy.htm Fluency Workstations online at: ncy.htm Language Arts – Punctuation Language Arts – Punctuation
Teaching Fluency in the Content Area Social Studies – Letters or Speeches Social Studies – Letters or Speeches Science – Oral presentations Science – Oral presentations example: How a plant grows. example: How a plant grows. Math – Word Problems, academic flash cards Math – Word Problems, academic flash cards
Fluency Grade Levels Grade Words Correct Per Minute (Spring) Adapted from “AIMSweb: Charting the Path to Literacy,” 2003, Edformation, Inc. Available at
Classroom Fluency Chart Student Name FallAccuracyWinterAccuracySpringAccuracyFallRateWinterRateSpringRate Curriculum-Based Oral Reading Fluency Norms for Students in Grades 2 Through 5,” by J. E. Hasbrouck and G. Tindal, 1992
Oral Reading Fluency Scale 4 - Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from the text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author’s syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Reads at an appropriate rate.
Oral Reading Fluency Scale 3- Reads primarily in three- and four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Reader attempts to read expressively and some of the story is read with expression. Generally reads at an appropriate rate.
Oral Reading Fluency Scale 2 - Reads primarily in two-word phrase groups with some three- and four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to the larger context of the sentence or passage. A small portion of the text is read with expressive interpretation. Reads significant sections of the text excessively slowly or fast.
Oral Reading Fluency Scale 1- Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two- or three-word phrases may occur – but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Lacks expressive interpretation. Reads text excessively slowly.
Oral Reading Fluency Scale A score of 1 should also be given to a student who reads with excessive speed, ignoring punctuation and other phrase boundaries, and reads with little or no expression. A score of 1 should also be given to a student who reads with excessive speed, ignoring punctuation and other phrase boundaries, and reads with little or no expression. Source: Adapted from Listening to Children Read Aloud: Oral Fluency, by G. S. Pinnell, J. J. Pikulski, K. K. Wixson, J. R. Campbell, P. B. Gough, & A. S. Beatty, 1995, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Available at
CBM Fluency Assessment Curriculum Based Measurement - ents.php Curriculum Based Measurement - ents.php ents.php ents.php Students can take the measures online Students can take the measures online
Fluency Beginnings Assess student reading Assess student reading Incorporate Fluency Strategies Incorporate Fluency Strategies Assess progress to share at next meeting Assess progress to share at next meeting
Fluency How will you incorporate fluency into your classroom? How will you incorporate fluency into your classroom?