The Middle Ages -- Review Europe years 500-1000 called the “Dark Ages” –Continuous invaders from south (Magyars) and west (Vikings) –Loss of security from Roman Empire –DECENTRALIZATION Lead to a spiritual revival –Church began restructuring / massive building projects (Cathedrals)
Historical Concept West vs East Mycenaean Greeks Athenians/Spartans Alexander’s Campaigns Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians Crusaders Israel U.S. led coalitions Trojans (Hittites) The Persian Empire Rise of Islam; Muslims and Turks Muslims Palestine Iraq/Afghanistan
The Crusades What are they? Muslim Turks threatening to conquer Constantinople (capital of Byzantine Empire) Byzantine Emperor pleads for help Pope Urban II – issued a call for a “holy war” to gain control of the Holy Land Next 300 years littered with Crusades against the Muslims.
The Crusades Soldiers, trained killers, Knights and the Crusades: http:What should we do with these trained killers? //www.youtube.com/watch?v=z- niTeTY7pwhttp:What should we do with these trained killers? //www.youtube.com/watch?v=z- niTeTY7pw
Goals of the Crusades Economic –Merchants profited by giving loans to fund the journey –Leased ships to transport armies across Mediterranean –Take trade routes from Muslim traders Social –Younger sons, who would not inherit property saw it as a chance to claim land –Get the violent knights out of Europe….fighting and destruction in another land. Political –Get rid of fighting knights who threatened peace and church property Religious –Reclaim Palestine and reunite Christians (was split East & West) –Stop Muslim attacks
1 st and 2 nd Crusades All classes gathered in Constantinople ill-prepared for war – didn’t know climate, geography, culture No strategy and no leader All were promised a spot in heaven Most were French – Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians and Spaniards joined as well The First Crusade was launched in 1096
1 st Crusade An army of 12k approached Jerusalem, and besieged the city for a month Capture the city in 1099 Victory was a narrow strip of land http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=oGj_bOX9 yGo&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=oGj_bOX9 yGo&feature=related
2 nd Crusade These newly formed Christian states were vulnerable to Muslim counterattack 1144 – Edessa reconquered by Turks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_Y748 407hAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_Y748 407hA 2 nd Crusade organized to recapture the city – it failed in 1187 Jerusalem had been captured by Saladin a Muslim leader
3 rd Crusade to Recapture Jerusalem http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=yXC JhNKQw3Qhttp://www.youtube. com/watch?v=yXC JhNKQw3Q Led by 3 of Europe’s most powerful monarchs –Phillip II of France –Frederick I of Germany –Richard the Lion Hearted of England –What eventually happened in 1192?
The Consequences of the Crusades http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EF0uK NJyHj4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EF0uK NJyHj4 What were some of the consequences of the Crusades?
Consequences a) Italian Merchants get rich equipping knights – ports of Italy busier than ever. b) Important trade routes re-opened between Europe and the Middle East c) New products introduced to Europe – silk, spices, fine cloth, technology d) The remaining kings and lords in Europe become more powerful because enemies were killed in the Middle East
Crusades -- Consequences e) After the failure of the Crusades, the Middle East remains controlled by Muslim Turks = the Ottoman Empire until the end of World War I, 1918