Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Chapter Ten – Power and Political Behavior
2Learning ObjectivesUnderstand a definition of power as being both an individual construct and an organizational construct.Distinguish the various types of authority and power.Comprehend the consequences of power relations within criminal justice organizations.Grasp the importance of expressing power and political behavior among criminal justice administrators.Describe effective types of power within criminal justice agencies.
3Power Defined Power exists in relationships. Individuals and organizational units that are able to deal with environmental uncertainty and instability often possess more power.In stable environments, like criminal justice organizations, power is possessed by the most efficient or effective individuals and groups.Power exists in people and the jobs they do.Individuals or groups that cannot easily be replaced tend to be more powerful.
4Key Aspects of Power in Organizations Power resides in the individuals or groups who determine what other persons, groups or organizations do.Power relationships exist between organizational units and at the interpersonal level.Power depends on:The ability to deal with uncertainties facing the organization,Whether an individual or group function can easily be replaced (substitutability), andThe importance of an individual or group function to the organization’s overall mission (centrality).
5Power versus Authority Terms are often used interchangeably.Difference is in the perceived legitimacy of their use.Authority is generally perceived to be a legitimate use of power.Power may be used to influence the behavior of others even without legitimate authority.
6Types of Power and Authority (Weber, 1947) Distinguished between power and authority.Power – based on coercion, not compliance. Often used in organizations emphasizing strict obedience.Authority – compliance with the directives necessary for achieving a common or shared goal.Weber’s Three Types of AuthorityTraditional – vested in the position held by a person.Charismatic – found in the personal attributes of a particular individual or organization.Legal – based on the formal rules and regulations of an organization.
7Types of Power and Authority (French and Raven, 1968) Power exists in the interaction between thePower holder – the person who expresses the power, andPower recipient – the person who receives the power.Five bases of power in all organizations.Reward – Power holder can grant remuneration.Coercive – Failure to follow orders will result in punishment.Legitimate – Power holder actually has this authority.Referent – Based on the recipient’s attraction to the holder.Expert – based on the recipient’s belief that the power holder has a high level of expertise.
8Other Types of PowerPower can also be acquired by individuals or groups within organizations that:Control information in the organization (Pfeffer, 1977)Acquire resources for the organization (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1977)
9Consequences of Power Relationships Power does not exist in a vacuum.Power is contextually defined within individual and/or organizational interactions.Consequences of power relations within organization are along two dimensions:Behavioral conformity, andAttitudinal conformity.Types of power are not equally effective in every situation.
10Consequences of Power Relationships Among inmates, Stojkovic (1984, 1986) found five types of social power.Coercive – used by prisoners to gain ‘respect’.Referent – power often used by religious groups.Legitimate – rests with older and longer confined inmates.Provision of resources – developed by inmates who are able to ‘import’ and distribute contraband.Expert – prisoners who are knowledgeable about legal systems and case law.
11Consequences of Power Relationships Social bases of power are more limited among correctional officers. Stojkovic identifies three:CoerciveRewardAccess to informationThese bases of power are often eroded by:Interactions with inmates who are themselves attempting to gain power.Changes in the demographics of prison populations.Changes in the way correctional officers are encouraged, or even allowed, to do their jobs.
12The Legitimacy of Power and Political Behavior Political behavior – actions that promote individual goals over organizational goals.More likely in criminal justice organizations whenA lack of consensus among members about goals,Disagreement over the means to achieve goals, orAnxiety about resource allocation.Often necessary in criminal justice agencies toSecure adequate resources through the budget process.Seek the legal authority to respond to an emerging crime trend.Create or recreate an organization’s mission and values statements.
13The Legitimacy of Power and Political Behavior The political process in criminal justice agencies can be used;Legitimately – if the agency adheres to its mission and valuesTo refocus the organization’s attention on an important and emerging social trend, e.g. terrorismTo define or redefine the organization’s mission and vision.Illegitimately – if the agency departs from its mission and becomes self-serving.When individuals within the organization use agency resources and power to satisfy their personal needs.When the organization attempts to resist a legitimate attempt to become more relevant.
14Effective Power in Criminal Justice Agencies Critical question – What types of power are criminal justice employees most likely to consider legitimate?The effectiveness of power is highly dependent upon its acceptance within the organization.Even legitimate power can be ineffective if subordinate employees disregard their leader’s legitimacy.
16Effects of Power Criminal Justice Agencies Legitimate, charismatic and expert power are more universally accepted.Reward and coercive power can be effective if used for a legitimate purposeReward and coercive power may lead to dysfunctional effects if used illegitimately.Learned helplessness (psychological dependence), orResistance (psychological withdrawal).
17Chapter SummaryPower can be understood and exhibited at both the individual and organizational levels.Power and authority are not the same thing.Weber identifies three types of power – traditional, charismatic and legal.French and Raven identify five types of power – coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert.Other researchers include the control of information and access to resources as sources of power.
18Chapter SummaryPower relationships within organizations can be defined along two dimensions – behavioral conformity and attitudinal conformity.Different expressions of power will have different impacts on organizations.There is a relationship between legitimacy and political behavior in criminal justice organizations.The political process is not inherently bad for criminal justice administrators. In fact, in many cases the political process is how things get done in criminal justice organizations.
19Thinking PointWhile driving home one evening the District Attorney of a rural Midwestern county is injured when his vehicle strikes a deer.This is the third time this DA has hit a deer on the roadway.He decides that the excessive deer population in his county is a threat to public safety. His appeals to the state wildlife agency for assistance (increasing the hunting limits) are unanswered.The following week the DA issues a press release informing the public that his office will no longer accept poaching cases involving deer.Because game poaching cases must be prosecuted by his office, this action effectively eliminates deer hunting limits in his county.
20Thinking Point Questions Does the District Attorney have the power or authority to make this decision?What type of power or authority is the District Attorney exercising?Given what you know about the consequences of power, what are the possible effects of the District Attorney’s actions?