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Organization Management

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Presentation on theme: "Organization Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organization Management
Organizational Principles and Police Agency Management

2 Organization collectivity of elements with a relatively identifiable boundary, a normative order (rules) ranks of authority (hierarchy), communications systems, and membership coordinating systems (procedures)

3 Organization (cont) this collectivity exists on a relatively continuous basis, in an environment, and engages in activities that are usually related to a set of goals; the activities have outcomes for organizational members, for the organization itself, and for society

4 Management the achievement of goals through the use of resources and activities - the ways in which the processes occur within the structure - often used to refer to private-sector organizations

5 Administration often used to refer to “public-sector” organizations
Also referred to as the process of POSDCoRB

6 Organizational Structure
the distributions, along various lines, of people among social positions that influence the role relations among these people a complex medium of control which is continually produced and recreated in interaction and yet shapes that interaction

7 POSDCoRB Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating Reporting

8 Structural Dimensions
Complexity Horizontal differentiation Vertical differentiation Geographical dispersion Formalization Centralization

9 Contextual Explanations
Size Technology Internal Culture The Environment

10 Organizational Processes
Power - capacity to control the behavior of others Authority Influence Leadership - ability, based on the personal qualities of the “leader”, to elicit the follower’s voluntary compliance in a broad range of matters. Decision-making - making a choice from among a set of options Strategic - those made at or near the “top” of the organization

11 Organizational Processes (cont)
Communications - transfer of information from one person to another with the purpose of affecting behavior Change - differences over time Life cycle - constant shifting of interests and conditions Developmental - planned actions directed at achieving selected out

12 Bureaucracy – (Weber) division of labor specialization of function
well-defined hierarchy of authority system of rules, regulations & procedures impersonality selection/promotion based on technical competence

13 Organizational Principles
Classical Organizational Theory Theory X Human Relations Theory Theory Y Systems Theory

14 Classical Theory (X) Hierarchy Specialization Procedural Guidelines
Formalization Position based authority Expertise based Employees economically motivated

15 Classical Theory (cont)
Communities began to question police performance and practices in a number of areas (community relations, effectively deal with problems not just respond to calls, etc.) Police began to question the quasi-military organizational structure and its repressive consequences on everyday life. Employees and employee organizations have influenced organizational views of classical organizational theory

16 Principles of Classical Organizational Theory
The organization follows the principle of hierarchy; each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. Specialization or division of labor exists whereby individuals are assigned a limited number of job tasks and responsibilities. Official policies and procedures guide the activities of the organization.

17 Classical Theory (cont)
Administrative acts, decisions, and rules are recorded in writing. Authority within the organization is associated with one’s position. Candidates are appointed on the basis of their qualifications, and training is a necessary part of the selection process.

18 Theory X Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive—even resistant—to organizational needs. The average man is, by nature, indolent—he works as little as possible. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led. He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. He is, by nature, resistant to change. He is gullible, not very bright (1960:5-6).

19 Human Relations (Y) Hawthorne Studies
Management - organize elements of enterprise People not passive or resistant - learned this behavior Motivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, direct behavior toward organizational goals all present Task of manager to arrange conditions and methods so mutual goal accomplishment possible Maslow”s Hierarchy of Needs

20 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization Esteem Social Security Psychological

21 Participative Management
Vertical Staff Meetings Problem-Solving Groups Quality Circles

22 Theory Y Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. People are not passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.

23 Theory Y (cont) The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals, are all present in people. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operations so that people can best achieve their own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. (1960:15).

24 Systems Theory Organizations exist in an environment - social, cultural, technological Organizations are complex sets of “units” that must be coordinated, maintained and controlled Attention is paid to intra and inter-system linkages

25 System Theories MBO Contingency Management TQM Culture Customers

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