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Organization Management Organizational Principles and Police Agency Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Organization Management Organizational Principles and Police Agency Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organization Management Organizational Principles and Police Agency Management

2 Organization collectivity of elements with a relatively identifiable boundary, a normative order (rules) ranks of authority (hierarchy), communications systems, and membership coordinating systems (procedures) collectivity of elements with a relatively identifiable boundary, a normative order (rules) ranks of authority (hierarchy), communications systems, and membership coordinating systems (procedures)

3 Organization (cont) this collectivity exists on a relatively continuous basis, in an environment, and engages in activities that are usually related to a set of goals; the activities have outcomes for organizational members, for the organization itself, and for society this collectivity exists on a relatively continuous basis, in an environment, and engages in activities that are usually related to a set of goals; the activities have outcomes for organizational members, for the organization itself, and for society

4 Management the achievement of goals through the use of resources and activities - the ways in which the processes occur within the structure - often used to refer to  private-sector  organizations the achievement of goals through the use of resources and activities - the ways in which the processes occur within the structure - often used to refer to  private-sector  organizations

5 Administration often used to refer to “public-sector” organizations often used to refer to “public-sector” organizations Also referred to as the process of POSDCoRB Also referred to as the process of POSDCoRB

6 Organizational Structure the distributions, along various lines, of people among social positions that influence the role relations among these people the distributions, along various lines, of people among social positions that influence the role relations among these people a complex medium of control which is continually produced and recreated in interaction and yet shapes that interaction a complex medium of control which is continually produced and recreated in interaction and yet shapes that interaction

7 POSDCoRB Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Staffing Staffing Directing Directing Coordinating Coordinating Reporting Reporting Budgeting Budgeting

8 Structural Dimensions Complexity Complexity –Horizontal differentiation –Vertical differentiation –Geographical dispersion Formalization Formalization Centralization Centralization

9 Contextual Explanations Size Size Technology Technology Internal Culture Internal Culture The Environment The Environment

10 Organizational Processes Power - capacity to control the behavior of others Power - capacity to control the behavior of others –Authority –Influence Leadership - ability, based on the personal qualities of the “leader”, to elicit the follower’s voluntary compliance in a broad range of matters. Leadership - ability, based on the personal qualities of the “leader”, to elicit the follower’s voluntary compliance in a broad range of matters. Decision-making - making a choice from among a set of options Decision-making - making a choice from among a set of options –Strategic - those made at or near the “top” of the organization

11 Organizational Processes (cont) Communications - transfer of information from one person to another with the purpose of affecting behavior Communications - transfer of information from one person to another with the purpose of affecting behavior Change - differences over time Change - differences over time –Life cycle - constant shifting of interests and conditions –Developmental - planned actions directed at achieving selected out

12 Bureaucracy – (Weber) division of labor division of labor specialization of function specialization of function well-defined hierarchy of authority well-defined hierarchy of authority system of rules, regulations & procedures system of rules, regulations & procedures impersonality impersonality selection/promotion based on technical competence selection/promotion based on technical competence

13 Organizational Principles Classical Organizational Theory Classical Organizational Theory –Theory X Human Relations Theory Human Relations Theory –Theory Y Systems Theory Systems Theory

14 Classical Theory (X) Hierarchy Hierarchy Specialization Specialization Procedural Guidelines Procedural Guidelines Formalization Formalization Position based authority Position based authority Expertise based Expertise based Employees economically motivated Employees economically motivated

15 Classical Theory (cont) Communities began to question police performance and practices in a number of areas (community relations, effectively deal with problems not just respond to calls, etc.) Communities began to question police performance and practices in a number of areas (community relations, effectively deal with problems not just respond to calls, etc.) Police began to question the quasi-military organizational structure and its repressive consequences on everyday life. Police began to question the quasi-military organizational structure and its repressive consequences on everyday life. Employees and employee organizations have influenced organizational views of classical organizational theory Employees and employee organizations have influenced organizational views of classical organizational theory

16 Principles of Classical Organizational Theory The organization follows the principle of hierarchy; each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. The organization follows the principle of hierarchy; each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. Specialization or division of labor exists whereby individuals are assigned a limited number of job tasks and responsibilities. Specialization or division of labor exists whereby individuals are assigned a limited number of job tasks and responsibilities. Official policies and procedures guide the activities of the organization. Official policies and procedures guide the activities of the organization.

17 Classical Theory (cont) Administrative acts, decisions, and rules are recorded in writing. Administrative acts, decisions, and rules are recorded in writing. Authority within the organization is associated with one’s position. Authority within the organization is associated with one’s position. Candidates are appointed on the basis of their qualifications, and training is a necessary part of the selection process. Candidates are appointed on the basis of their qualifications, and training is a necessary part of the selection process.

18 Theory X Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive—even resistant—to organizational needs. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive—even resistant—to organizational needs. The average man is, by nature, indolent—he works as little as possible. The average man is, by nature, indolent—he works as little as possible. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led. He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. He is, by nature, resistant to change. He is, by nature, resistant to change. He is gullible, not very bright (1960:5-6). He is gullible, not very bright (1960:5-6).

19 Human Relations (Y) Hawthorne Studies Hawthorne Studies Management - organize elements of enterprise Management - organize elements of enterprise People not passive or resistant - learned this behavior People not passive or resistant - learned this behavior Motivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, direct behavior toward organizational goals all present Motivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, direct behavior toward organizational goals all present Task of manager to arrange conditions and methods so mutual goal accomplishment possible Task of manager to arrange conditions and methods so mutual goal accomplishment possible Maslow”s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow”s Hierarchy of Needs

20 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Social Security Psychological

21 Participative Management Vertical Staff Meetings Vertical Staff Meetings Problem-Solving Groups Problem-Solving Groups Quality Circles Quality Circles

22 Theory Y Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise. People are not passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. People are not passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.

23 Theory Y (cont) The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals, are all present in people. The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals, are all present in people. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operations so that people can best achieve their own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. (1960:15). The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operations so that people can best achieve their own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. (1960:15).

24 Systems Theory Organizations exist in an environment - social, cultural, technological Organizations exist in an environment - social, cultural, technological Organizations are complex sets of “units” that must be coordinated, maintained and controlled Organizations are complex sets of “units” that must be coordinated, maintained and controlled Attention is paid to intra and inter-system linkages Attention is paid to intra and inter-system linkages

25 System Theories MBO MBO Contingency Management Contingency Management TQM TQM –Culture –Customers –Counting


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