Presentation on theme: "Organization Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organization Management Organizational Principles and Police Agency Management
2 Organizationcollectivity of elements with a relatively identifiable boundary, a normative order (rules) ranks of authority (hierarchy), communications systems, and membership coordinating systems (procedures)
3 Organization (cont)this collectivity exists on a relatively continuous basis, in an environment, and engages in activities that are usually related to a set of goals; the activities have outcomes for organizational members, for the organization itself, and for society
4 Managementthe achievement of goals through the use of resources and activities - the ways in which the processes occur within the structure - often used to refer to private-sector organizations
5 Administration often used to refer to “public-sector” organizations Also referred to as the process of POSDCoRB
6 Organizational Structure the distributions, along various lines, of people among social positions that influence the role relations among these peoplea complex medium of control which is continually produced and recreated in interaction and yet shapes that interaction
10 Organizational Processes Power - capacity to control the behavior of othersAuthorityInfluenceLeadership - ability, based on the personal qualities of the “leader”, to elicit the follower’s voluntary compliance in a broad range of matters.Decision-making - making a choice from among a set of optionsStrategic - those made at or near the “top” of the organization
11 Organizational Processes (cont) Communications - transfer of information from one person to another with the purpose of affecting behaviorChange - differences over timeLife cycle - constant shifting of interests and conditionsDevelopmental - planned actions directed at achieving selected out
12 Bureaucracy – (Weber) division of labor specialization of function well-defined hierarchy of authoritysystem of rules, regulations & proceduresimpersonalityselection/promotion based on technical competence
14 Classical Theory (X) Hierarchy Specialization Procedural Guidelines FormalizationPosition based authorityExpertise basedEmployees economically motivated
15 Classical Theory (cont) Communities began to question police performance and practices in a number of areas (community relations, effectively deal with problems not just respond to calls, etc.)Police began to question the quasi-military organizational structure and its repressive consequences on everyday life.Employees and employee organizations have influenced organizational views of classical organizational theory
16 Principles of Classical Organizational Theory The organization follows the principle of hierarchy; each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one.Specialization or division of labor exists whereby individuals are assigned a limited number of job tasks and responsibilities.Official policies and procedures guide the activities of the organization.
17 Classical Theory (cont) Administrative acts, decisions, and rules are recorded in writing.Authority within the organization is associated with one’s position.Candidates are appointed on the basis of their qualifications, and training is a necessary part of the selection process.
18 Theory XManagement is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise.With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization.Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive—even resistant—to organizational needs.The average man is, by nature, indolent—he works as little as possible.He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led.He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs.He is, by nature, resistant to change.He is gullible, not very bright (1960:5-6).
19 Human Relations (Y) Hawthorne Studies Management - organize elements of enterprisePeople not passive or resistant - learned this behaviorMotivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, direct behavior toward organizational goals all presentTask of manager to arrange conditions and methods so mutual goal accomplishment possibleMaslow”s Hierarchy of Needs
20 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-ActualizationEsteemSocialSecurityPsychological
22 Theory YManagement is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise.People are not passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.
23 Theory Y (cont)The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals, are all present in people.The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operations so that people can best achieve their own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. (1960:15).
24 Systems TheoryOrganizations exist in an environment - social, cultural, technologicalOrganizations are complex sets of “units” that must be coordinated, maintained and controlledAttention is paid to intra and inter-system linkages
25 System Theories MBO Contingency Management TQM Culture Customers Counting