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Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin.

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Presentation on theme: "Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin

2 Chapter 14 Leadership and Influence Processes

3 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3 Learning Objectives Discuss influence and relate it to leadership in organizations. Identify and describe two influence-based approaches to leadership. Identify and discuss leadership substitutes in organizations. Describe the nature of power; identify and discuss various types of power, and explain how to use different kinds of power. Discuss politics and political behavior and their role in organizations. Describe impression management and how people use it to influence others.

4 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 Leadership as Influence Influence is the cornerstone of leadership. –A person’s effectiveness in affecting the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of others is the ultimate determinant of whether she or he is really a leader.

5 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 Influence-Based Approaches to Leadership Transformational Leadership –The abilities that allow a leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively. Transactional Leadership –Essentially the same as management, in that it involves routine work-related activities for the purposes of stability. Charismatic Leadership –A type of influence based on the leader’s personal charisma – a form of interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance.

6 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.6 Figure 14.1 The Charismatic Leader

7 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 Leadership Substitutes: Can Leadership Be Irrelevant? Leadership Substitutes –Are individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinates’ satisfaction and performance. –If certain factors are present, the employee will perform his or her job capably without the direction of a leader.

8 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.8 Workplace Substitutes: Neutralizing Leader Behaviors Individual characteristics –Ability –Experience –Training –Knowledge –Need for independence –Professional orientation –Indifference toward organizational rewards

9 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 Workplace Substitutes: Neutralizing Leader Behaviors [continued] Task characteristics –A high degree of structure –Frequent feedback –Intrinsic satisfaction Organizational characteristics –Explicit plans and goals –Rules and procedures –Cohesive work groups –A rigid reward structure –Physical distance between supervisor and subordinate

10 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.10 Superleadership –Occurs when a leader gradually turns over power, responsibility, and control to a self- managed work group. –When team-based management is implemented, a superleader can alter his or her own personal style and become more of a coach or facilitator than a supervisor.

11 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 Power in Organizations The Nature of Power –Power is the potential ability of a person or group to exercise control over another person or group. Bases of Power –Legitimate Power Power granted by virtue of one’s position in the organization. Managers have legitimate power over their subordinates simply because of the formal positions they hold. –Reward Power The extent that a person controls rewards another person values. Examples of organizational rewards are pay, promotions, and work assignments.

12 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 Types of Power Bases of Power –Coercive Power The extent to which a person can punish or physically or psychologically harm someone else. Its use carries a considerable cost in terms of employee resentment and hostility.

13 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 Types of Power [continued] –Expert Power The extent to which a person controls information that is valuable to someone else. Expert power can reside in many organizational niches; it transcends positions and jobs. –Referent Power Exists when one person wants to be like someone else or imitates someone else. Similar to charisma. it often involves trust, similarity, acceptance, affection, willingness to follow, and emotional involvement.

14 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 Types of Power: Position Versus Personal Power Position Power –Power residing in the position, regardless of who holds the job. Legitimate, reward, and some aspects of coercive and expert power can all contribute to position power. Personal Power –Power that resides with an individual, regardless of his or her position in the organization. The primary bases of personal power are referent and some traces of expert, coercive, and reward power.

15 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 Figure 14.2 Position Power and Personal Power

16 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.16 The Uses of Power in Organizations: Three Follower Outcomes Commitment –Results from a leader’s exercise of power and the subordinate’s acceptance and identification with the leader. Compliance –Is a subordinate’s willingness to comply with the leader’s wishes so long as the subordinate is not inconvenienced. Resistance –Arises from the subordinate’s rejection of the leader and refusal to cede to the leader’s wishes.

17 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.17 Table 14.1 Uses and Outcomes of Power

18 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.18 Table 14.1 Uses and Outcomes of Power [continued]

19 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.19 Table 14.2 Guidelines for Using Power

20 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.20 Table 14.2 Guidelines for Using Power [continued]

21 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.21 Politics and Political Behavior Organizational Politics –Activities people perform to acquire, enhance, and use power and resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainty or disagreement. The Pervasiveness of Political Behavior –Managers see political behavior as an undesirable but unavoidable facet of organizational life. –Political behavior may be ethical and appropriate under certain circumstances: If it respects the rights of all affected parties. If it results in justice that is fair and equitable.

22 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.22 Figure 14.3 A Model of Ethical Political Behavior

23 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.23 Politics and Political Behavior Managing Political Behavior –Requires a basic understanding of three factors: The reasons for political behavior. Common techniques for using political behavior. Strategies for limiting the effects of political behavior.

24 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.24 Politics and Political Behavior [continued] Limiting the Effects of Political Behavior: –Open communication. –Reduce uncertainty. –Apply the adage “forewarned is forearmed.” Simply being aware of the causes and techniques of political behavior can help a manager check their effects.

25 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.25 Figure 14.4 Uses of Political Behavior: Reasons, Techniques, and Possible Consequences

26 Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.26 Impression Management in Organizations Impression Management –Is a direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her own image in the eyes of others. Reasons for Impression Management –To further and enhance their career prospects. –To boost their own self-esteem. –To acquire more power and control.


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