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Chapter Eight – Personnel Evaluation and Supervision.

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1 Chapter Eight – Personnel Evaluation and Supervision

2  Understand the difficulty in arriving at goal consensus within criminal justice agencies.  Comprehend the importance of organizational structure to employee supervision.  Know the differences between the human-service approach to employee supervision and the traditional model of employee supervision.  Understand the difficulty in implementing a human service model of employee supervision within criminal justice organizations.  Explain the guidelines for performance evaluation and supervision.

3  Criminal justice organizations are expected to provide multiple services to the community.  Components of the criminal justice system have multiple goals and functions.  In some cases these goals and functions contradict one another.  Fragmentation and diversity within the criminal justice system exacerbate this conflict.  Attempts to reorganize components of the criminal justice system (monolithically) to reduce goal conflict often fail.

4  Organizational structure influences employee evaluation and supervision.  Differences exist because of organizational size, complexity, and mission.  Organizational diversity forces administrators to develop creative ways to evaluate and supervise employees.  Evaluation and supervision are also affected by budgets, differing goals, and the level of centralization.

5  Poor evaluation and supervision systems are characterized by: o Lack of clearly communicated rules, policies and procedures, o Inconsistent application of policies and procedures, o Failure to address problems and concerns, o Untimely professional feedback and disingenuous evaluation, o Inadequate supporting evidence and lack of documentation, o Inadequate training and lack of employee development, and o The tone set by management in the workplace.

6  Models of employee supervision have increased in recent years.  Public agencies actively seek improvement in employee supervision models by attempting to implement ideas from the private sector.  Some models have been developed within the criminal justice system.  Supervision models are highly influenced by motivation and job design.

7  Stresses a high degrees of centralization, formalization, complexity.  Includes the following elements o A hierarchy that includes; An identifiable span of control A precise unity of command, and A clear delegation of authority o Rulification, and o Specialization.

8  Key elements o Span of control – the appropriate number of employees a supervisor can supervise. o Unity of command – one person in charge of a situation and employee. o Delegation of authority – clearly defined tasks and responsibilities to maintain organizational integrity. o Rulification – emphasizes the importance of rules and regulations. o Specialization – the division of labor within the organization.

9  Views supervision within the context of both individual and organizational goals.  Attempts to integrate employee goals into organizational goals.  First step is to determine what employees want.  Consistently, employees report wanting o To accomplish job tasks, and o To feel fulfilled with their roles.

10  Key elements o Employee ownership – when employees have more say in how the organization is managed. o Sharing of power – allows employees to delegate themselves.  Controversy o Human service activities make the officer’s job richer, more rewarding, and less stressful. o Criminal justice managers do not have the authority to share power with their employees. Somebody has to be in charge.

11  Regardless of their approach to supervision, criminal justice agencies are evaluated on the basis of their overall performance.  Conflicting goals, constraints and finite resources tend to ‘force’ criminal justice agencies into the traditional model of supervision.  Accountability, equity, fiscal integrity and efficiency are possible obstacles to innovation in public agencies.

12  Methods for evaluating employee performance have been, are, and will always be controversial.  No single method works in all situations and organizational environments.  Instead, key issues and concepts can assist criminal justice administrators with the performance evaluation process.

13  Yukl’s (1981) guidelines include o Defining job responsibilities o Assigning work, and o Setting performance goals.  Oettmeier and Wycoff’s (1998) model offers three levels of evaluation. o Individual performance o Team level o The organization’s ability to address problems

14  360 Evaluations o Recognizes the importance of multiple perspectives of employee performance. o Encourages input from all those (stakeholders) affected by an employee’s actions. o Sacramento PD uses four sources of information. o Other programs use as many as nine perspectives.  Comprehensive evaluations of officer performance enable insight into how successful the officer is at achieving organizational or unit goals.

15  Supervision models are just as diverse.  Here again, there is no ‘one best way’.  Most supervisors organize work into four functions. o Traditional management o Communication o Human resource management o Networking

16  Engel (2004) identified four styles of supervision among police supervisors. o Traditional – supervisors who expect measurable outcomes from subordinates o Innovative - supervisors who encourage officers to be problem solvers o Supportive – supervisors who act as a buffer between officers and management o Active – supervisors who work actively with subordinate employees

17  Robbins and Judge (2007) identify three skill sets of effective supervision. o Technical skills – specialized knowledge or expertise o Human skills – the ability to work with and motivate people o Conceptual skills – the ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

18  Criminal justice organizations have many goals and often these goals contradict and conflict with one another.  This makes goal consensus difficult.  Organizational structure plays a major role in how employee evaluation and supervision will occur.  The two primary models of employee supervision within criminal justice organizations are the traditional and human service models of employee supervision.  Criminal justice administrators face multiple challenges when attempting to implement a human service model of employee supervision (conflicting goals, competing interests and fiscal/organizational constraints).

19  Guidelines do exist for effective employee supervision within criminal justice organizations.  These guidelines must fit the needs, goals, and structures of these organizations.  Research identifies the primary work functions of criminal justice managers and the work roles of employees.  Criminal justice managers use multiple styles of supervision and no single style is effective in all situations.  The effectiveness of a supervision style depends on the types of organizational goals pursued by the organization.

20  Captain Jones has just been assigned to command the Administrative Division of a large urban police department.  This division contains a diverse array of line and staff functions including: o Crime records o Crime laboratory o Special investigations (e.g. internal affairs, public integrity unit) o Training o Human resources

21  In some units (e.g. crime records) employee performance is quantifiable. In others, (e.g. internal affairs) it is more difficult to measure employee performance.  The City Council has just approved a new employee merit pay system. Employees who perform meritoriously are eligible for up to a five percent pay raise.  Department policy requires that all employees are eligible for merit pay.

22  Using what you have learned about employee performance evaluation systems, develop a system that Captain Jones can use to make merit pay decisions for his diverse employees. This system should insure that: o Only meritorious employees receive raises, and o All employees are eligible regardless of their work assignment.

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