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Influence, Empowerment, & Politics

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1 Influence, Empowerment, & Politics
Chapter 15 Influence, Empowerment, & Politics

2 Mutuality of Interest The balancing of organizational and individual interests Influenced by situation and management skill Fundamental aspect of influencing behavior

3 “Soft” Influence Tactics
Rational persuasion: Using logical arguments and facts to persuade another that a desired result will occur. Inspirational Appeal: Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to one’s values and beliefs Consultation: Asking for participation in decision making or planning a change Ingratiation: Getting someone to do what you want by putting that person in a good mood or getting him or her to like you. Personal appeal: Appealing to feelings of loyalty and friendship before making a request Ranked in diminishing order on this and the next slide are nine generic influence tactics used in the workplace. The first five tactics are called “soft” tactics, the last four tactics are called “hard” tactics. 15-3

4 “Hard” Influence Tactics
Exchange: Promising some benefits in exchange for complying with a request. Coalition Building: Persuading by seeking the assistance of others or by noting the support of others. Legitimating: Pointing out one’s authority to make a request or verifying that it is consistent with prevailing organizational policies and practices. Pressure: Seeking compliance by using demands, threats, or intimidation. [No narration required.] 15-4

5 Outcomes of Influence Attempts
Commitment - a strong positive response The person will agree and carry out the request because they truly believes it is the right or best thing to do Compliance – completion of request The person will agree only because there is something positive in it for him/her or something negative will happen if they don’t Resistance - a strong negative response Request will be disregarded, influence attempt is unsuccessful Three possible outcomes of the influence tactics you just learned are commitment, compliance, and resistance. The best outcome is commitment because the target person’s intrinsic motivation will energize good performance. 15-5 6

6 Power Socialized (help others) vs. Personalized (help self) Reward
Coercive (punishment/threats) Legitimate (formal position in org.) Expert (knowledge) Referent (respect)

7 Empowerment moving decision making down to the lowest level where a competent decision can be made Employees must be willing & able Doesn’t have to erode leader’s power Matter of degree – not either or

8 Participative Management
Employees participate in: Setting goals Making decisions Solving problems Making performance improvements (changes)

9 The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation
Power Distribution Followers are granted authority to make decisions High Power Sharing Manager/leader and followers jointly make decisions Influence Sharing Manager/leader consults followers when making decisions Degree of Empowerment This figure shows the varying degrees of empowerment. Certainly a subordinate’s readiness for various tasks should also be a consideration as to what degree of empowerment is appropriate. Authoritarian Power Manager/leader impose decisions Domination Consultation Participation Delegation None 15-9

10 Delegation Highest degree of empowerment More likely to happen when:
Employee is competent Employee shares manager’s objectives Manager & employee have positive relationship Employee is also a manager Trust

11 Barriers to Delegation :
Belief in the fallacy “if you want something done right, do it yourself” Lack of confidence/trust in lower levels Low self-confidence Fear of being called lazy Vague job definition Fear of competition from those below Reluctance to take risks involved in depending on others Lack of controls that provide early warning of problems with delegated duties Poor example set by bosses who do not delegate Although delegation sounds easy enough, many managers find it hard to actually do. The barriers listed here often interfere with the process. 15-11

12 Organizational Politics
Intentional attempts to influence organizational decisions to protect own interests Heightened during change Networks – people oriented groups Coalitions – issues related groups (short term)

13 Impression Management
Attempts to manipulate other’s perceptions of you Associated with high self-monitoring Can easily become unethical

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