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Chapter 15 Influence, Empowerment, & Politics. Mutuality of Interest The balancing of organizational and individual interests Influenced by situation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Influence, Empowerment, & Politics. Mutuality of Interest The balancing of organizational and individual interests Influenced by situation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Influence, Empowerment, & Politics

2 Mutuality of Interest The balancing of organizational and individual interests Influenced by situation and management skill Fundamental aspect of influencing behavior

3 “Soft” Influence Tactics Rational persuasion: Using logical arguments and facts to persuade another that a desired result will occur. Inspirational Appeal: Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to one’s values and beliefs Consultation: Asking for participation in decision making or planning a change Ingratiation: Getting someone to do what you want by putting that person in a good mood or getting him or her to like you. Personal appeal: Appealing to feelings of loyalty and friendship before making a request 15-3

4 “Hard” Influence Tactics Exchange: Promising some benefits in exchange for complying with a request. Coalition Building: Persuading by seeking the assistance of others or by noting the support of others. Legitimating: Pointing out one’s authority to make a request or verifying that it is consistent with prevailing organizational policies and practices. Pressure: Seeking compliance by using demands, threats, or intimidation. 15-4

5 Commitment - a strong positive response – The person will agree and carry out the request because they truly believes it is the right or best thing to do Compliance – completion of request – The person will agree only because there is something positive in it for him/her or something negative will happen if they don’t Resistance - a strong negative response – Request will be disregarded, influence attempt is unsuccessful Outcomes of Influence Attempts 15-5

6 Power Socialized (help others) vs. Personalized (help self) Reward Coercive (punishment/threats) Legitimate (formal position in org.) Expert (knowledge) Referent (respect)

7 Empowerment moving decision making down to the lowest level where a competent decision can be made Employees must be willing & able Doesn’t have to erode leader’s power Matter of degree – not either or

8 Participative Management Employees participate in: – Setting goals – Making decisions – Solving problems – Making performance improvements (changes)

9 The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation None High Degree of Empowerment DominationConsultationParticipationDelegation Influence Sharing Manager/leader consults followers when making decisions Power Sharing Manager/leader and followers jointly make decisions Power Distribution Followers are granted authority to make decisions Authoritarian Power Manager/leader impose decisions 15-9

10 Delegation Highest degree of empowerment More likely to happen when: – Employee is competent – Employee shares manager’s objectives – Manager & employee have positive relationship – Employee is also a manager – Trust

11 Barriers to Delegation : – Belief in the fallacy “if you want something done right, do it yourself” – Lack of confidence/trust in lower levels – Low self-confidence – Fear of being called lazy – Vague job definition – Fear of competition from those below – Reluctance to take risks involved in depending on others – Lack of controls that provide early warning of problems with delegated duties – Poor example set by bosses who do not delegate 15-11

12 Organizational Politics Intentional attempts to influence organizational decisions to protect own interests Heightened during change Networks – people oriented groups Coalitions – issues related groups (short term)

13 Impression Management Attempts to manipulate other’s perceptions of you Associated with high self-monitoring Can easily become unethical


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