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Chapter Eleven Leadership and Influence Processes.

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1 Chapter Eleven Leadership and Influence Processes

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-2 Chapter Objectives Characterize leadership as influence. Discuss influence-based approaches to leadership. Describe key leadership substitutes. Explain power in organizations. Discuss power and organizational politics. Describe impression management.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-3 Leadership as Influence Influence is the ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes, or behaviors of others. It is the cornerstone of the leadership process.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-4 Influence-Based Approaches to Leadership Transformational Leadership –The set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change, create a vision to guide that chance, and execute the change effectively Charismatic Leadership –A type of influence based on the leader’s personal charisma

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-5 Figure 11.1: The Charismatic Leader

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-6 Leadership Substitutes: Can Leadership Be Irrelevant? Leadership Substitutes –Individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinates’ satisfaction and performance. –Unlike traditional theories, which assume hierarchical leadership is always important, the premise of the leadership substitutes perspective is that leader behaviors are irrelevant in many situations.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-7 Examples of Leadership Substitutes Individual Characteristics – Ability – Experience – Training – Knowledge – Need for independence – Professional orientation – Indifference towards organizational rewards

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-8 Examples of Leadership Substitutes (continued) Task Characteristics –A high degree of structure –Frequent feedback –Intrinsic satisfaction Organizational Characteristics –Explicit plans and goals –Rules and procedures –Cohesive work group –A rigid reward structure –Physical distance between supervisor and subordinate

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-9 Superleadership –Occurs when a leader gradually and purposefully turns over power, responsibility, and control to a self-managing work group –When a team-based management approach is implemented, a superleader can alter his or her own personal style and become more of a coach or facilitator than a supervisor.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-10 Power in Organizations Power is the potential ability of a person or group to exercise control over another person or group. Difference Between Power and Influence –Power is distinguished from influence due to the element of control. Considerable differences of option exist about how thoroughly power pervades in organizations. Some people argue that virtually all interpersonal relations are influenced by power; others believe exercise of power is confined to only certain situations.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-11 Bases of Power Legitimate Power –Granted by virtue of one’s position in the organization –Managers have legitimate power over their subordinates. Reward Power –The extent to which a person controls rewards that another person values, such as: Pay Promotions Work assignments

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-12 Bases of Power (continued) Coercive Power –The extent to which a person has the ability to punish or physically or psychologically harm another –The use of coercive power carries a considerable cost in terms of employee resentment and hostility. Expert Power –The extent to which a person controls information that is valuable to others Expert power can reside in many niches in an organization; it transcends positions and jobs.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-13 Bases of Power (continued) Referent Power –Exists when one person wants to be like or imitates someone else –Similar to the concept of charisma in that it often involves trust, similarity, acceptance, affection, willingness to follow, and emotional involvement Position Power –Resides in the position regardless of who is filling it –Legitimate, reward, and some aspects of coercive and expert power can all contribute to position power Position power is similar to authority

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-14 Bases of Power (continued) Personal Power –Resides in the person regardless of the position he or she holds –The primary bases of personal power are referent and some traces of expert, coercive, and reward power. –Charisma may also contribute to personal power.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-15 Figure 11.2: Position Power and Personal Power

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-16 The Uses of Power in Organizations Commitment –A result of a leader’s exercise of power and the subordinate’s acceptance and identification with the leader Compliance –A subordinate’s willingness to comply with the leader’s wishes as long as doing so will not require extra effort Resistance –A result of the subordinate’s rejection of the leader and refusal to cede the leader’s wishes

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-17 Organizational Politics Organizational Politics is a concept closely related to power in organizational settings in politics or political behavior. –Consists of activities people perform to acquire, enhance, and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation of uncertainty or disagreement. –Political behavior is the general means by which people attempt to obtain and use power.

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-18 The Pervasiveness of Political Behavior Managers see political behavior as an undesirable but unavoidable facet of organizational life. Political behavior can serve both ethical and unethical purposes.

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-19 Managing Political Behavior Reasons for Political Behavior: –Ambiguous goals –Scarce resources –Technology and environment –Non-programmed decisions –Organizational chance

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-20 Managing Political Behavior (continued) The Techniques of Political Behavior: –Controlling as much information as possible –Using outside experts –Controlling the agenda –Game playing –Building coalitions –Controlling decision parameters

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-21 Managing Political Behavior (continued) Limiting the Effects of Political Decisions –The techniques for checking political activity target: The reasons it occurs in the first place The specific techniques people use for political gains. Examples include: –Open communication –Reducing uncertainty –Applying the adage “forewarned is forearmed”

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11-22 Impression Management –A direct and intentional effort to enhance one’s own image in the eyes of others Reasons for Engaging in Impression Management: –To further and enhance their career prospects –To boost their own self-esteem –To acquire more power and control


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