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Legitimate Leadership SPIAA Training Conference Enhancing Legitimacy: Procedural Justice & Crime Control in the 21 st Century Tuesday, July 22, 2014 -

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Presentation on theme: "Legitimate Leadership SPIAA Training Conference Enhancing Legitimacy: Procedural Justice & Crime Control in the 21 st Century Tuesday, July 22, 2014 -"— Presentation transcript:

1 Legitimate Leadership SPIAA Training Conference Enhancing Legitimacy: Procedural Justice & Crime Control in the 21 st Century Tuesday, July 22, :30 – 11:45 Gennaro F. Vito, Professor Southern Police Institute University of Louisville

2 Definition Police legitimacy is the belief that the police are entitled to call upon the public to comply with the law. Police legitimacy is the belief that the police are entitled to call upon the public to comply with the law. It is the right to exercise power. It is the right to exercise power. It enables the police to shape the behavior of citizens. It enables the police to shape the behavior of citizens. The police need people to both accept their decisions & follow the law voluntarily. The police need people to both accept their decisions & follow the law voluntarily. – Through obligation – voluntary deference to police directives.

3 Factors Influencing Compliance People voluntarily obey the law when: People voluntarily obey the law when: 1)It is instrumental – creation of a credible risk that people will be caught & punished for crime; 2)They believe in the moral rightness of the law; 3)They believe in the legitimacy of the authority enforcing the law

4 Factors influencing the acceptance of police decisions 1)The degree to which the police were generally regarded as legitimate. 2)The degree to which decisions were regarded as favorable & fair. Residents are more willing to cooperate with the police by engaging in community activities, reporting crimes or identifying suspects when they view the police as legitimate. Residents are more willing to cooperate with the police by engaging in community activities, reporting crimes or identifying suspects when they view the police as legitimate.

5 Gaining Legitimacy The police can gain legitimacy when they provide: The police can gain legitimacy when they provide: 1)PERFORMANCE: Effectively control crime & criminal behavior. 2)DETERRENCE: Creating a credible risk of detection & apprehension of offenders. 3)DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE: Establishing a fair distribution of police services across citizens & their communities.

6 Instrumental Perspective of Legitimacy Police develop & maintain legitimacy through their effectiveness in controlling crime & disorder in the community. Police develop & maintain legitimacy through their effectiveness in controlling crime & disorder in the community.

7 Normative Perspective on Legitimacy The legitimacy of the police is linked to public judgments about the fairness of the processes through which the police make decisions & exercise authority. The legitimacy of the police is linked to public judgments about the fairness of the processes through which the police make decisions & exercise authority. If they are perceived as fair, people will view the police as legitimate. If they are perceived as fair, people will view the police as legitimate. If they view the police procedures as unfair, it can lead to alienation, dissatisfaction, defiance & a lack of public cooperation. If they view the police procedures as unfair, it can lead to alienation, dissatisfaction, defiance & a lack of public cooperation.

8 Aspects of Procedural Justice Active participation in discussions prior to police decision making. Active participation in discussions prior to police decision making. – Explaining views/behavior before police decide on a course of action. Police decision making that is neutral & objective. Police decision making that is neutral & objective. – Evidence that police treat everyone in a like manner. Being treated with dignity & respect. Being treated with dignity & respect.

9 Conclusions on Legitimacy Police have more control over how they treat people than they do over the crime rate. Police have more control over how they treat people than they do over the crime rate. By becoming procedurally sensitive, police can have more control over the way people view their legitimacy than if they had to rely solely on deterrence & their performance in controlling crime & disorder. By becoming procedurally sensitive, police can have more control over the way people view their legitimacy than if they had to rely solely on deterrence & their performance in controlling crime & disorder.

10 Sponsoring Legitimacy Within the Organization Employees are more willing to follow organizational rules when they believe they are legitimate. Employees are more willing to follow organizational rules when they believe they are legitimate. It creates a “reservoir of support” that is vital to organizational survival during a time of crisis. It creates a “reservoir of support” that is vital to organizational survival during a time of crisis. Tied to fairness in the workplace. Tied to fairness in the workplace. – Use of open & participatory forms of leadership. – Fairness of “allocation” procedures. – Provides a framework to evaluate procedures as just or unjust.

11 Leadership & Norm Creation Norm: a generalized expectation of behavior. Norm: a generalized expectation of behavior. – It is generalized if every member of a social group expects all others to behave in a certain way in a given situation. Social norms must be shared by other people and partly sustained by their approval and disapproval. Social norms must be shared by other people and partly sustained by their approval and disapproval. They are sustained by feelings of embarrassment, anxiety, guilt, and shame that a person suffers at the prospect of violating them. They are sustained by feelings of embarrassment, anxiety, guilt, and shame that a person suffers at the prospect of violating them. They also may be propelled by anger and indignation. They also may be propelled by anger and indignation. They define group behavior and are enforced through both rewards & sanctions. They define group behavior and are enforced through both rewards & sanctions.

12 Five Stages of the Norm Life Cycle 1.Norm Creation: The leader creates a norm through an autocratic or democratic process and provides them to followers. 2.Norm Identification: The actor rationally identifies with the norm. 3.Norm Spreading: the distribution of a norm among the group. The leader uses learning mechanisms (like imitation) to promote the norm. 4.Norm Enforcement: When a powerful leader punishes a follower, the norm is reinforced. But rewards can fulfill the same function. 5.Norm Emergence: The norm is followed by agency members and this fact is recognized.

13 O.K., Vito. But how can we do this? Remember “Model the Way,” “Inspire a Shared Vision”? Remember “Model the Way,” “Inspire a Shared Vision”? Assumes that the leader is acknowledged and respected – has a reputation as a competent professional. Assumes that the leader is acknowledged and respected – has a reputation as a competent professional. Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe and value and act upon them while transparently interacting with others. Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe and value and act upon them while transparently interacting with others. They use their personal identification with followers to sponsor their social identification with the organization. They use their personal identification with followers to sponsor their social identification with the organization. They facilitate the creation of meaningfulness at work. They facilitate the creation of meaningfulness at work. The nature of their leadership can become the basis of the culture of the organization. The nature of their leadership can become the basis of the culture of the organization.

14 Authentic Leadership Authentic leadership stresses that leading by example by modeling and setting high moral standards, honesty, and integrity. Authentic leadership stresses that leading by example by modeling and setting high moral standards, honesty, and integrity. They are guided by a set of values based upon “what is right and fair” for both the leader and the followers. They are guided by a set of values based upon “what is right and fair” for both the leader and the followers. They lead from the front, identify their vulnerabilities and those of their followers while sponsoring their personal growth. They lead from the front, identify their vulnerabilities and those of their followers while sponsoring their personal growth. The values of the followers thus tend to modeled after those evidenced by the leader. The values of the followers thus tend to modeled after those evidenced by the leader. Their ethical behavior sends a strong message to followers that affects what they attend to, what they think, how they construct their own roles, and how they decide to behave. Their ethical behavior sends a strong message to followers that affects what they attend to, what they think, how they construct their own roles, and how they decide to behave.


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