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The Rise of Totalitarianism Communism in Russia Fascism in Italy, Germany, and Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Totalitarianism Communism in Russia Fascism in Italy, Germany, and Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Totalitarianism Communism in Russia Fascism in Italy, Germany, and Japan

2 Totalitarian states have governments that have complete control over every aspect of people’s lives. Why did people turn over their control to a totalitarian government? How did totalitarian governments come to power? How did totalitarian governments keep control over the people? Could a totalitarian government take over the United States of America? Hitler did not get elected by promising the German people that he would lead them into another World War… kill millions of Germans… start the Holocaust… create Death Camps… destroy German cities… Hitler was elected because he promised to improve German education… provide child care for working mothers… improve the economy and get more jobs… and restore German pride Secret Police Laws to “Protect” citizens Scapegoating evil enemies of the people encouraging informants Convinced the German people to trade their freedoms for protection from evil enemies fear of terrorists

3 Totalitarian states are ones where the governments have complete control over all aspects of people’s private and public lives. In this unit we will be studying the rise of totalitarian states after World War I in Russia, Italy, Germany, and Japan.

4 In Russia, hundreds of years of rule by the Czars was replaced by revolutionaries. Vladimir Lenin tried to modernize Russia before Joseph Stalin created a totalitarian state. In Japan, Emperor Hirohito lost power to the military who came to dominate Japanese society. Japanese militarism would lead to war with Europe and the USA. After a series of weak governments in Italy, Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party come to power. They create a totalitarian society. Germany struggled to repay the debts from the Treaty of Versailles. Hatred of the treaty (and War Guilt Clause) and enormous economic troubles leads to the rise of Adolf Hitler. Rise of Totalitarian States ( ) These leaders used secret police, fear of foreign attack, and propaganda to take total control over every aspect of their people’s public and private lives.

5 Rise of Nationalism after world war I

6 The Russian Revolution a feudal society (farmer based) Russian Czar not able to adapt to a changing world poor leadership and extreme hardships during the First World War bloody death of the royal family symbol of hope for the poor people of the world as the Russians started democratic reforms seen as a threat by Western leaders betrayed by leaders seeking power who turned Russia into a totalitarian society

7 Rise of Russian Nationalism

8 For over 300 years the Romanov family ruled Russia. In 1917, the rule of the family came to a violent end. Czar Nicholas II ( ) disastrous military leader abdicating in 1917, he was imprisoned by the Red Army he and his family were killed in the Ural Mountains Czar Alexander II ( ) abolished serfdom on March 3, 1881, and introduced many reforms he was assassinated in 1881 Czar Alexander III ( ) more police and new laws he also undid many of the reforms that his father had introduced

9 Russia struggled to find a balance between the desire to industrialize and the reality of having a country that was mostly made up of peasant farmers. By 1900, a small industrial revolution was started in Russian cities. This led to more problems as Russians tried to understand the new changes…

10 The Russian Revolution

11 Russian Revolution and Rise of Fascism 1.Two Revolutions in Russia A.March 1917, political, economic, and social conditions in Russia started a revolution that overthrew the Czar

12 The end of the Russian Monarchy

13 In 1917, the Czar abdicated. Democracy came to Russia. The Russians set up Soviets – the local branches of workers parties. In November 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over power in Russia. Lenin’s Bolshevik party changed its name to Communists – after Karl Marx’s classless society.

14 Lenin was a dynamic leader. Democracy spread…at first…

15 Lenin takes control of Russia

16 1.Two Revolutions in Russia A.March 1917, political, economic, and social conditions in Russia started a revolution that overthrew the Czar B.Bolsheviks (Communists – led by Lenin) seized power in OCtober 1917 i.ended private ownership of land ii.gave land to peasants iii.gave workers control of factories and mines iv.ended Russia’s involvement in World War I

17 When Russia withdrew from World War I, a civil war broke out.

18 The Revolution was opposed by some Russians (they became known as “White Russians”) A Civil War devastated Russia

19 The Russians at first think that their Revolution would be welcomed by the American and French people (who had also had successful revolutions for freedom and democracy) The Russians write letters of goodwill to the Americans… who immediately send troops into Russia to put down the Revolution… Over 15 million Russians die during the Civil War… Russia would have a difficult time trusting the Allies again… American and Allied forces invade and occupy much of Russia

20 In Russia equality everyone voted workers were given control of factories peasants were given land In the USA discrimination white men voted rich industrialists owned everything sharecropping How did Western Nations respond to the Russian Revolution? Western countries were controlled by wealthy leaders who saw the new ideas that the Russians had as dangerous. The Russian Revolution might become a dangerous example to the poor in the west. Western leaders sent their armies into Russia to overthrow the revolution and restore the Czar.

21 Russia fights Civil War and is attacked by Western Powers

22 1.Two Revolutions in Russia A.March 1917, political, economic, and social conditions in Russia started a revolution that overthrew the Czar B.Bolsheviks (Communists – led by Lenin) seized power in October 1917 i.ended private ownership of land ii.gave land to peasants iii.gave workers control of factories and mines iv.ended Russia’s involvement in World War I C.three year civil war between the Communist Red Army and the Whites, people who were loyal to Czar

23 The Revolution and Civil War left Russia poor and destroyed. To improve the economy, Lenin started the NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP). Lenin wanted the economy to develop before Russia could move to a communist state.

24 By 1900, Europe enjoyed the benefits of the Industrial Revolution. But, what about Russia?

25 The Industrial Revolution brought about huge changes in society. Philosophers tried to explain the way that the world had changed. The most influential thinker of the times was a German named Karl Marx...

26 Lenin tries to modernize Russia

27 Much of the success of the Russian Revolution comes from the work of Lenin. He is charismatic and dynamic. He realizes that the proletariat society does not exist in feudal Russia. A classless society could only exist once the urbanized working class took control of Russia. But Russia had never been through a capitalist phase. So Lenin introduces the NEW ECONOMIC POLICY, making the state develop a kind of capitalist society.

28 2.From Lenin to Stalin AUnder Lenin, the Communist Party used the army and secret police to enforce its will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist and socialist ideas.

29 Lenin is followed by Joseph Stalin. Stalin creates a totalitarian society in Russia.

30 2.From Lenin to Stalin AUnder Lenin, the Communist Party used the army and secret police to enforce its will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist and socialist ideas. B.After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over i.tried to make USSR a modern industrial state

31 Russia had missed the Capitalist phase Stalin tried to skip Capitalist phase by allowing the state to develop the Russian economy eventually the state would “hand over” control of the economy to the “dictatorship of the proletariat”… huge factories were built with millions of people being encouraged to work to make the state stronger farm land was taken away by the government and peasants forced to work on huge collectivized farms Stalin introduced 5-year- plans for industrial and agricultural improvements

32 2.From Lenin to Stalin AUnder Lenin, the Communist Party used the army and secret police to enforce its will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist and socialist ideas. B.After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over i.tried to make USSR a modern industrial state ii.all economic and agricultural activity under government control iii.5-year-plans to increase production

33 Stalin’s Great Purge In 1934 Stalin targeted his enemies for elimination. By 1939 Stalin had complete control of the country. Historians estimate that Stalin was responsible for between 8-13 million Russians.

34 2.From Lenin to Stalin AUnder Lenin, the Communist Party used the army and secret police to enforce its will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist and socialist ideas. B.After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over i.tried to make USSR a modern industrial state ii.all economic and agricultural activity under government control iii.5-year-plans to increase production C.In 1934 Stalin started terror - Great Purge (4 million people were purged and almost 800,000 were executed).

35 How did Stalin maintain control over the USSR? Propaganda government controlled all media encouraged obedience to the state Secret police arrested opposition spied on people even family members spied Censorship against the law to criticize government controlled everything people heard, saw, or read Terror Great Purge constant fear of midnight “knock on the door” sent to labor camps - gulags

36 3.Life in a Totalitarian State A.Stalin used secret police, propaganda, censorship, and terror to establish a totalitarian state. B.Leaders were Communist Party members, industrial managers, military, scientists, and some artists and writers.

37 “Literature, the cinema, the arts are levers in the hands of the proletariat which must be used to show the masses positive models of initiative and heroic labor.” Socialist Realism

38 3.Life in a Totalitarian State A.Stalin used secret police, propaganda, censorship, and terror to establish a totalitarian state. B.Leaders were Communist Party members, industrial managers, military, scientists, and some artists and writers. C.Artists and writers forced to use “socialist realism” (tried show Soviet life in a positive way).

39 While the Russians struggled to adapt to the changes that the ending of their monarchy brought, the rest of the world also struggled to understand what had happened in World War I.

40 After World War I, people everywhere questioned old ideas about religion, leadership, and even science. Men like Sigmund Freud developed new ideas about what motivated people. Albert Einstein develops the Theory of Relativity which upsets scientific beliefs held since Isaac Newton.

41 4.A Culture in Conflict A.new ideas and science changed ideas about the world i.atomic theory ii.theory of relativity iii.psychoanalysis

42

43 4.A Culture in Conflict A.new ideas and science changed ideas about the world i.atomic theory ii.theory of relativity iii.psychoanalysis B.new literature and the arts lead to a sense of uncertainty

44 After women won the right to vote in Russia, western nations that claimed to be democratic finally were forced to give women the vote.

45 4.A Culture in Conflict A.new ideas and science changed ideas about the world i.atomic theory ii.theory of relativity iii.psychoanalysis B.new trends in literature and the arts contributed to a sense of uncertainty C.women made progress in education and politics but still lagged behind men in career opportunities and pay

46 International Relations

47 The War to End All Wars ended on November 11, 1918 Europe was left to wonder what had happened… Over 65 million men were mobilized… There were 37,500,000 casualties… Over 8,500,000 men died Over 21 million men returned injured The war cost over $31,000,000,000 someone had to pay…the question was who…

48 Futility Nihilism Despair Distrust of government Hopelessness Anger Atheism Leadership failure Suicide Frustration NEVER AGAIN

49 5.The Western Democracies A.after World War I diplomats worked hard to make: i.treaties that ended war

50 After World War I, President Woodrow Wilson proposed the 14 Points for peace. One of Wilson’s ideas was to create a League of Nations. The League excluded Germany and Russia. Most importantly, Americans did not seem sure that the League was a good idea. The League of Nations The U.S. Senate decided to reject Wilson’s plans for the League. The USA never joined…

51 5.The Western Democracies A.after World War I diplomats worked hard to make: i.treaties that ended war ii.cooperation in the League of Nations

52

53 he Western Democracies A.after World War I diplomats worked hard to make: i.treaties that ended war ii.cooperation in the League of Nations B.leading democratic powers faced difficult political and economic challenges at home and abroad

54 The Great Depression begins

55 Black Tuesday

56 Hoovervilles

57 5.The Western Democracies A.after World War I diplomats worked hard to make: i.treaties that ended war ii.cooperation in the League of Nations B.leading democratic powers faced difficult political and economic challenges at home and abroad C.the Great Depression created financial turmoil and widespread suffering throughout the industrialized world

58 Rise of Fascist Italy Italians were furious that they were not given more land after World War I. They also feared a Communist Revolution like Russia. Many were attracted to the idea of a strong leader. preached extreme nationalism nations must struggle – peaceful nations were doomed no clearly defined program for improvement citizens lose individual rights state is supreme

59 Benito Mussolini

60 6.Fascism in Italy A.Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Party took advantage of political and economic unrest to seize power in the 1920s.

61 Mussolini’s Aggression

62 6.Fascism in Italy A.Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Party took advantage of political and economic unrest to seize power in the 1920s. B.Fascism was rooted in extreme nationalism and glorified action, violence, discipline, and loyalty to the state. C.As Il Duce, Mussolini established the first totalitarian state which served as a model for others.

63 Rise of Adolf Hitler

64 7.Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany A.Weimer Republic weakened by disunity and inflation. Many blamed the government for the hated treaty of Versailles

65 Adolf Hitler

66 7.Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany A.Weimer Republic weakened by disunity and inflation. Many blamed the government for the hated treaty of Versailles B.Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and resentment of the Treaty of Versailles

67 Hitler’s Rise to Dictator in 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany (Weimer Republic) he did not have a majority he called for new elections six days before the elections, the Nazis burned down the Reichstag and blamed Communists Hitler won a small majority and declared a one-party state

68 7.Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany A.Weimer Republic weakened by disunity and inflation. Many blamed the government for the hated treaty of Versailles B.Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and resentment of the Treaty of Versailles C.Hitler and the Nazis used terror, repression, and one party rule to create a totalitarian society

69 7.Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany A.Weimer Republic weakened by disunity and inflation. Many blamed the government for the hated treaty of Versailles B.Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and resentment of the Treaty of Versailles C.Hitler and the Nazis used terror, repression, and one party rule to create a totalitarian society D.Economic problems and ethnic tensions in Eastern Europe helped fascist dictators gain power there


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