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The Coming of the War 1931-1942. DEMOCRACY  During the 1920’s many nations moved toward freedom and democracy.  Some nations took a different direction.

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Presentation on theme: "The Coming of the War 1931-1942. DEMOCRACY  During the 1920’s many nations moved toward freedom and democracy.  Some nations took a different direction."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Coming of the War

2 DEMOCRACY  During the 1920’s many nations moved toward freedom and democracy.  Some nations took a different direction and moved toward repressive dictatorships and totalitarianism governments. TOTALITARIANISM  Totalitarian governments is a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people. The Soviet Union and Italy were two countries that adopted repressive governments.

3 USSR  In 1924, Lenin died and Joseph Stalin took over as the leader in USSR.  Stalin means “Man of Steel” in Russia  Cruel and Ruthless  He wanted to transform the USSR into an “industrial power” and “state run collective farms.” STALIN CONTINUED  The “State ran industrial power” led to 10 million deaths of his own people.  Stalin used fear, propaganda and terror to control his people  It is believed that he used the Red Army to imprison and kill up to 10 million additional people.

4 MUSSOLINI IN ITALY  Benito Mussolini formed the Fascist Party which was a right winged organization that trumped nationalism and promised to make Italy great again.  The followers of Mussolini were known as the Black Shirts. MUSSOLINI CONTINUED  Mussolini took control over the government and the army within a few years.  He outlawed political parties.  He took over the press.  He created the secret police.  He organized youth groups that he could use to indoctrinate the young.

5 TOTALITARIANISM  A theory of government in which a party or leader controls the economic, social and cultural lives of people. CHARACTERISTICS OF TOTALITARIANISM  Single party dictatorship controls every aspect of life  Strong, charismatic leader  State ran economy  Use of police and spies to enforce terror  Government control of the media  Use of schools and youth to spread ideology  Strict censorship of artist

6 GERMANY  Germany was weakened by the worldwide effects of the Great Depression.  Adolf Hitler started the Nazi Party. He wrote a book called Mein Kampf which means “ My Struggles.” In his book he stated the reasons he felt that Germany had problems. HITLER  Hitler criticized the ideologies but his sharpest assaults were against the communist and the Jews.  He spread pseudo- scientific theories of a master race that targeted the Jews for future violence.  Hitler was the symbol of a totalitaranian regime.

7 HITLER  He used the secret police to crush all opposition.  He ran a state controlled press-  propaganda.  The state controlled press praised/worshipped Hitler’s accomplishments.  He had a state controlled educational system to indoctrinate the youth. HITLER IN LATE 1930’S  He violates the Versailles Treaty that ended World War I and starts rearmament or rebuilding the military.  His economic policies and public works projects ended the Great Depression in Germany.

8 JAPAN  During the 1920’s Japan increased the freedoms and democracy. The Japanese government reduced the size of the military.  Japan passed laws giving all men the right to vote.  Japan legalized trade unions. JAPAN  Japan allowed diverse political parties to develop.  Japan did not become a totalitarianism state. Japan continued as a constitutional monarchy.

9 JAPAN EXPANDS EMPIRE  Japans power shifted and turn toward military control.  Japan started a period of military expansion.  Japan moved to control Chinese railroads.  Japanese were violent killing over 200,000 and burning city “Rape of Nanking.” WEAKNESSES OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS  America refused to join.  League had no standing army and no real power.  Aggressive nations challenged the League and it was short on action.

10 HITLER  Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles and increased the size of the army and navy. He spoke to the German people about needing “living space.”  In 1935 he reclaimed the Saar a region the French controlled. The League did nothing. MUSSOLINI  1935 Mussolini lead Italy to invade Ethiopia, an independent country in east Africa. Emperor Haile Selessie appealed to the League and they did almost nothing. Ethiopia fell to Italy.  Spain was in a civil war. Both Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to the nationalist.  The USSR sent aid to the republican side.

11 APPEASEMENT POLICY  Why did Britain allow appeasement?  WWI had been horrific.  Many countries, including USA and FDR, did not take hard stance against German aggression. HITLER & AGGRESSION  Hitler takes Sudetenland. Britain and France appease Germany.  Appeasement under Munich Pact only postponed the war 11 months.  Munich Pact  Hitler would take part of Czechoslovakia but not all of it. He was ended his aggression. This was not an effective pact.

12 ROOSEVELT OPPOSES AGGRESSION  The Rape of Nanking and the killing of 3 navy sailer  Panay Incident…ships sunk.  FDR made a statement on Japan “reign of terror and u


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