Presentation on theme: "Russia, The Soviet Union, Russia. Before Russia was the Soviet Union… Russia was a monarchy with the leader called a Czar. (title for the leader which."— Presentation transcript:
Russia, The Soviet Union, Russia
Before Russia was the Soviet Union… Russia was a monarchy with the leader called a Czar. (title for the leader which means Emperor) During this time a cultural gap emerged between the nobility(wealthy) and serfs(really poor, owned by landowners). The rich became richer and the poor became poorer.
Problems in Russia Serfs were freed in 1861, but they had not education and worked poor conditions in factories. Non-Russians were facing prejudices. Russification - Everyone was required to speak Russian and follow Eastern Orthodox Christianity. (Branch off of Catholicism, from the Eastern part of the Roman Empire) Jews were treated harshly and blamed for Russia’s problems. Czars increased their strict rule.
The Russian Revolution With frustration and discontent, many workers and thinkers were attracted to Socialism Belief that calls for a greater economic equality in society. Public ownership of all land, classless society, and equal sharing of wealth. World War I brought even greater hostility with people starving, and Czar Nicholas II was forced to give up his throne.
Czar Nicholas II
Civil War The Bolsheviks (a revolutionary group led by Vladimir Lenin) seized control and formed a communist government. Violent overthrow of the government and the creation of a new society led by workers. They withdrew out of World War I, took over all industry, food distribution, established an 8 hour workday, and reformed the army. Not all people liked them, they dealt harshly with enemies so this caused a civil war.
Civil War Soon the country was at war with the Bolshevik’s Red Army against the anti-Bolshevik’s White Army.
The Soviet Union It was established in 1922 also known as the USSR (The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). It gradually gained back territories.
The power of Joseph Stalin After Lenin’s death Joseph Stalin came to power. He set out to make the Soviet Union a powerful industrial giant by ruthlessly taking over farms and factories. Millions were killed or died of starvation, physical hardships, or brutal conditions in labor camps. He also killed anyone in his party or military whom he thought might threaten his power.
A world Superpower After Hitler’s defeat during World War II, Russia became a Superpower controlling most of Eastern Europe. These places were known as satellites Countries controlled by the Soviet Union.
The importance of Satellites The most important Russian Satellites were East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. They were important because they strengthened the Soviet Military and supplied raw materials and manufactured goods.
The Cold War During this time, The United States and the Soviet Union were the two world powers. They were engaged in the Cold War until the Soviet’s collapse A struggle between two competing systems for world influence and power (not an actual war).
The Collapse of the Soviet Union During the Cold War The Soviet Union spent most of its money on military defense to keep up with the United States. They also provided aid to developing countries in hopes to gain influence there. Their economy began to weaken due to military expenditures and corruption in the government (most money went to them).
The Final Demise Reforms were put in place for a more open Soviet Union by the new president Gorbachev, yet it was too late. Communist satellites overthrew their governments. Non-Russian republics began to declare independence. (Ethnic Conflict) Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine formed the Commonwealth of Independent states and were eventually joined by others. December 25, 1991 – Gorbachev’s presidency ended and the Soviet Union ceased to exist.