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Homework Reading about Mussolini Answer all questions DO IT!
Life under the Tsar For 300 years, Russia had been ruled by the Romanov family. Most people in Russia were serfs, who worked the land owned by wealthy landowners. No food, education, or healthcare for common people. Workers joined local councils called soviets Protests were common.
Life under the Tsar Russia was very hurt by WWI – Food, fuel, and housing shortages (Total War) – The Russian Army was not well equipped for war 1.7 million soldiers died. 5 million injured By 1917, the people of Russia angry with the Tsar (king). They’ve had enough!
Don’t forget Rasputin! Russians felt that Rasputin was running the country. They viewed the Tsar as a weak leader
Two Revolutions March 1917 – The Tsar sends soldiers to put down a protest. The soldiers decide to side with the protestors. – Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate (resign/quit). – The new government kept Russia in the war, which upset the people of Russia.
Two Revolutions November 1917 (only 6 months later) – The new government is failing, and the Bolsheviks take control. – They immediately pull Russia out of WWI. – They promise to give land to the people, and give government power to the Soviets.
Two Revolutions November 1917 (only 6 months later) – Renames Russia the Soviet Union (USSR) – Wanted to create a Communist state, where everyone was equal. – Communism is a form of Socialism
Vladmir Lenin Born 1870 Leader of the Bolsheviks Dedicated to violent revolution Been in exile since 1897 “Peace, Land, Bread, NOW!”
What is Socialism? Economic System Means of production (factories, farms, railroads, large companies) are owned and operated by the workers
What is Socialism? Socialism is a system based on the belief that prosperity in a country should benefit all members of society equally Goal is to eliminate rich and poor. Everyone should be economically equal, so all resources should be divided equally. =
In theory, everybody owns property and businesses together In theory, everyone is equal Single class system Gov’t controls prices and supplies of goods Gov’t divides resources equally among all people Private ownership, individuals own business and property Economic mobility, can move between classes Multi-class system Prices and supplies of goods controlled by supply and demand Gov’t has limited or no regulation of economy Socialism vs. Capitalism
SOCIALism – Social = many people CAPITALism – Capital = money
Communism – Political form of Socialism – Originally created by a German named Karl Marx. – The “have nots,” (the working class proletariat,) should resist the “haves” of the business class (owners = bourgeoisie) – In the Soviet Union, Communists were called “Reds” Red = Communism
Communism Ultimate goal of communism is to create a classless (socialist) society where, in theory, everybody is equal. Their symbol was the hammer and sickle Hammer represented the workers Sickle represented the farmers
Rise of Josef Stalin After Lenin’s death, Josef Stalin took power as a ruthless dictator. Stalin’s Soviet government controlled all businesses and financial resources
Josef Stalin Stalin means “Man of Steel” Began many programs to improve industry, agriculture, and education. RULED THROUGH TERROR! – All who opposed him were killed or sent to work camps in Siberia Brought great progress at a great cost
Soviet Communism In the USSR, Communism didn’t work out exactly as planned In a classless society, who ends up as the boss? Someone has to make the decisions. The government, not the people controlled everything – banks, mines, factories, railroads, and farms.
Collectivization Farms were taken away from private owners and shared by large groups of farmers. At least, that was the plan In reality the gov’t controlled the price of crops, which farmers didn’t like
Resistance to Collectivization Many peasants resisted collectivization. They protested by killing their own animals and burning crops. Stalin sent in troops to confiscate crops, many peasants were forcibly starved to death
Stalin the Dictator Stalin was an absolute ruler, leader of a totalitarian regime Under totalitarian leadership, THERE IS NO ROOM FOR DISSENTERS!
The Great Purge Great Purge – Stalin eliminated all opponents, including old Communist Party leaders and military leaders Why would Stalin want to purge, or get rid of, these people?
Show Trials Stalin had “show trials” – Many old party leaders were forced to admit that they had betrayed the USSR Millions of Russians were executed or sent to Siberia to work to death in labor camps called gulags.
Stalin was an absolute leader. Why would Stalin have “show trials” when he could have just made his opponents disappear? Something to Think About
Leon Trotsky Lenin’s 2 nd in Command. Stalin was jealous that he was not chosen to rule after Lenin died. Stalin betrays Trotsky, and exiles him to Mexico.
Leon Trotsky Sending the guy to Mexico wasn’t enough, so he sends an assassin to kill Trotsky… …with an icepick
Trotsky ends up in the Hospital Where he later dies
Stalin feels he needs to completely erase Trotsky from history.