Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution occurred in a feudal society (farmer based) happened because the Russian Czar (king) was not able to adapt to a changing world resulted."— Presentation transcript:
The Russian Revolution occurred in a feudal society (farmer based) happened because the Russian Czar (king) was not able to adapt to a changing world resulted from poor leadership and extreme hardships during the First World War saw the bloody death of the royal family became a symbol of hope for the poor disillusioned people of the world as the Russians started democratic reforms was seen as a threat by the leaders of the Allied Powers was betrayed by leaders seeking power who turned the Revolution into a totalitarian society
The Romanov family ruled Russia for three centuries. In the mid-1800s Czar Alexander II tried to modernize Russia. He freed the peasants and started reforms. Unfortunately, Alexander III reversed all of his father’s reforms and turned Russia into a police state. In 1894, Nicholas II became Czar when Alexander III died. Nicholas II promised to maintain power like his ancestors. He wanted to modernize Russia to catch up to western industrialization. His old style of government did not match the demands of an industrializing country. Industrialized workers and university students started to meet and discuss the ideas of Karl Marx. The royal family was out of touch with most Russians. Nicholas II suffered a humiliating defeat to the Japanese in 1905. Russia’s entry into the First World War was a disaster. Weak leadership soon accounted for more than 4 million Russians being killed, wounded, or captured. The Czar moved to the front to lead the army personally in 1916. The Czar left his wife Czarina Alexandra to run Russia. The Czar and Czarina’s only son was a hemophiliac (dangerous disease for which there was no cure) The Czarina fell under the influence of Rasputin, a “holy man” who convinced her to make terrible decisions in running the country. In March 1917, there were popular uprisings all over Russia. The Czar had lost the support of the people and the nobles and he abdicated.
In 1917, the Czar abdicated. Democracy came to Russia. The Russians set up Soviets – the local branches of workers parties. In November 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over power in Russia.Lenin’s Bolshevik party changed its name to Communists – after Karl Marx’s classless society.
Lenin was a dynamic leader. Democracy spread…at first…
The Communist government promised so much at first. But the gains of the Revolution would have to be defended.
The Communists followed the idea of Marx that society’s leadership should come from the urbanized industrial working class. But, most Russians were peasant farmers – not urbanized factory workers. How could the industrial workers lead the society when they were a minority within Russia?
An illiterate man is a blind man… All good communists learn how to read…
Under the Czar, children worked… Communists wanted the children to get educated. Even the milk maids that worked on the farms should take time to read and get involved in politics and their community…
The Revolution was opposed by some Russians (they became known as “White Russians”) A Civil War devastated Russia
The Russians at first think that their Revolution would be welcomed by the American and French people (who had also had successful revolutions for freedom and democracy) The Russians write letters of goodwill to the Americans… who immediately send troops into Russia to put down the Revolution… Over 15 million Russians die during the Civil War… Russia would have a difficult time trusting the Allies again… American and Allied forces invade and occupy much of Russia
Much of the success of the Russian Revolution comes from the work of Lenin. He is charismatic and dynamic. He realizes that the proletariat society does not exist in feudal Russia. A classless society could only exist once the urbanized working class took control of Russia. But Russia had never been through a capitalist phase. So Lenin introduces the NEW ECONOMIC POLICY, making the state develop a kind of capitalist society. Russian productivity rises with the introduction of 5 Year Plans.
Lenin is followed by Joseph Stalin. Stalin creates a totalitarian society in Russia.