Target: Culture and Ideas Reformation – theological controversies that broke Latin Church unity. Early Reformation – 1500 – papacy gained importance, corruption, dissent. – Large donations, tax receipts.
Counter Reformation and the Politics of Religion – Latin Christian Church reform movement. – Council of Trent. – 1540 – Ignatius Loyola created the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) – Inquisition.
– Henry VIII – became head of the Church of England (Anglican Church).
Local Religion, Traditional Culture, and Witch- Hunts – Blend of church rituals with local customs. – Witch-hunts by Protestants and Catholics. Late 16 th and 17 th centuries – northern Europe – Rising social tensions, rural poverty, environmental strains.
The Scientific Revolution – 16 th century – observation and experimentation challenged prevailing conceptions of the physical world. – Nicholas Copernicus – heliocentrism. – Galileo Galilei – proved heliocentrism. – Isaac Newton – Law of Gravity. – Brahe, Kepler, Boyle.
– Intellectual and religious leaders encouraged political authorities to suppress these ideas. – Printed books spread new ideas. – Other traditions were soon challenged.
The Early Enlightenment – 18 th century movement – one could reform society by discovering rational laws of social behavior. – Influenced by Scientific Revolution, undermining of the moral authority of religion, church opposition.
– Influenced revolutions after 1750. – Many Catholic and Protestant leaders opposed. – European monarchs selectively endorsed new ideas. – Europe in 1750 – political and religious divisions, growing literacy, and the printing press spread ideas.
Essential Questions How did the interaction of traditional beliefs and revolutionary ideas influence the cultural history of early modern Europe?
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: TRANSFORMATIONS IN EUROPE (1500- 1750)
Objectives Describe the factors that contributed to the wealth of some Europeans and the great poverty of others from 1500-1750.
Essential Questions What factors contributed to the wealth of some Europeans and the great poverty of others from 1500-1750?
Target: Social and Economic Life Small number of dominant noble families, mostly exempt from taxation. Larger class of prosperous commoners. Most – poor laborers, journeymen, apprentices, and rural laborers.
The Bourgeoisie – Expanding trade = growth of European cities. – Urban wealth from manufacturing, finance, and trade. Bourgeoisie (middle class).
The Monarchies of England and France – 17 th century – conflicts with powerful rivals. – England Charles I – English Civil War, defeated and executed. The Commonwealth – Lead by Oliver Cromwell until 1658.
– Glorious Revolution James II baptized son as Catholic. Parliament asked Mary and William to rule – Protestants English Bill of Rights – created limited monarchy.
– France Estates General represented the clergy, nobility, and towns (bourgeoisie) – After 16 th century, monarchs generally ruled alone. » Justification: divine right – God given right to rule. Louis XIV – Palace of Versailles in 1682
– Most European rulers imitated French absolutism. John Locke (1632-1704) – Natural rights – life, liberty, and property. – Ruler’s authority from consent of the governed, were subject to the law. – If a monarch violates natural rights, citizens have the right and duty to rebel.
Warfare and Diplomacy – Warfare was almost constant in early modern Europe. – Thirty Years War (1618-1648) caused long-lasting depopulation and economic decline.
– Improvements in skill and weaponry of armed forces. – New fortifications to withstand cannon bombardments. – Stalemates meant victory increasingly depended on navies.
– England – only major nation that did not maintain an army.
– Balance of power – major European states formed temporary alliances to prevent any one from becoming too powerful. France, Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia.
Paying the Piper – Heavy military costs = need to increase revenues.
– Spain Expensive wars, expulsion of certain groups hurt economy. Small group controlled most wealth and was tax exempt. High sales taxes discouraged manufacturing. Silver and gold from American colonies = inflation.
– Netherlands Emerged as the world’s greatest trading nation. Economic success due to decentralized government. After 1650, the English broke Dutch dominance in overseas trade. – Government role in the economy increased.
– French developed national economy under Jean Baptiste Colbert.
Essential Questions How did differing policies in the areas of religion, foreign relations, and economics determine the very different experiences of early modern European states?