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World History: The Earth and its Peoples

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1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 16 The Transformation of Europe,

2 Objectives Be able to show how the religious reformation and dynastic rivalries further divided the people of Europe at a time when greater unity seems desirable. Be able to describe how royal centralization increased the unity and power of Spain, France, and England. Understand how states policies with regard to economic growth and military reorganization, warfare, and diplomacy enable northern European countries to move ahead of Spain. Be able to analyze the relationships between climate change, human-induced environmental change, and social change in Europe. Understand the ways in which witch-hunts, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment reflected different European views of the natural world and of human society.

3 Religious and Political Innovations
New Modern Era 1) Reformation 2) Christian Europe unity competition Religious Reform economic prosperity Renaissance St. Peter’s Basilica corruption Pope Leo X (Medici) ( ) indulgences Martin Luther ( ) challenge to Pope Leo faith over works

4 Lutheranism

5 Religious and Political Innovations
Protestant Reformation rejection of Pope’s authority word of God & Bible Lutheranism salvation through Jesus Christ German-speaker appeal printing press John Calvin ( ) Protestant Institutes of the Christian Religion Salvation is predestined simplification of church rituals rejection of celibacy; pro-marriage Catholic Reformation Society of Jesus (1534) Ignatius of Loyola

6 Failure of Empire, 1519-1556 Holy Roman Empire Opponents
federation of Germanic states Ottomans (Vienna) Charles V Habsburg Austria and Spain Holy Roman Emperor Goal: unite Europe Opponents King Francis I Luther’s Reformation German Wars of Religion (1546) Peace of Augsburg (1555) Breakup of empire Catholicism or Lutheranism

7 Royal Centralization, 1550-1750
Key Ingredients 1) Talented rulers (advisors) Jean Colbert (France) Robert Walpole (Great Britain) 2) Long tenure Spain 6 ( ) France 5 ( ) Increased Power limit of church power Roman Catholic King Philip (Spain) Inquisition King Henry of Navarre (France) Catholic Conversion Edict of Nantes

8 Royal Centralization, 1550-1750
Increased Power King Louis XIV (France) Revocation of Edict of Nantes King Henry VIII (England) Katharine of Aragon Archbishop of Canterbury 1533 head of Church of England monasteries and convents limit of noble power uniformity in law intendants army vernacular nationalism over Latin

9 Absolutism & Constitutionalism
no check on power France Estates-General not called to session efficiency in tax collection selling high office Palace of Versailles Constitutionalism written constitution checks power Great Britain coerced loans Scottish rebellion 1642 King Charles I

10 Absolutism & Constitutionalism
English Civil War House of Commons 1642 Two sides Lords bishops and nobles Commoners Puritans “Rump” parliament Charles I executed (1649) Oliver Cromwell ( ) Glorious Revolution (1688) William of Orange Mary Stuart Refusals to call parliament

11 Building State Power Powerful Military Balance of power firearms
large standing armies drilling techniques France naval superiority ramming to maneuverability cannon technology England end of Spain’s dominance Balance of power War of Spanish Succession Austria/ Prussia/ England

12 Building State Power Economy Spain Dutch England France
commercial elite alliances trade and taxes ratio Spain Protestants, Dutch, Muslim, Jew religious uniformity Dutch 1560s and 1570s revolts sales tax and Catholicism greatest trading nation by 1600s commercial shipping England financial revolution France aristocracy wins out

13 Dutch Revolts The Dutch

14 Dutch Trade Routes

15 Urban Society Growth of Urban Areas bourgeoisie poor marriage
wealthy merchants bourgeoisie town dwellers capital reinvestment monarchial alliances state revenues family / ethnic networks poor “deserving” and “unworthy” marriage partner choice later / smaller families

16 Urban Society Business Practices banks joint-stock companies
family funded banks big business / government security joint-stock companies limit of risk and reward monopolized overseas trade stock exchanges insurance companies Technology refinement of existing spread of printed material

17 Rural Society Average Person in 1500-1750 Little Ice Age (1590-1700)
decline in serfdom conditions worsen war and drought Little Ice Age ( ) few degree drop potatoes and maize deforestation iron industry effect on rural poor gentry bourgeoisie estates rebellions tax increases; food shortages

18 Realm of Ideas European Thinking folklore & Christian teaching
natural / supernatural witchcraft social tensions & poverty Scientific Revolution natural causes Nicholas Copernicus heliocentric Galileo Galilei The Starry Messenger Isaac Newton forces of gravity Enlightenment power of reason John Locke (1690) Second Treatise of Civil Government

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