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Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 2: Communication and the Self PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In, Tenth Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 2: Communication and the Self PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In, Tenth Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 2: Communication and the Self PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In, Tenth Edition Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. For permission to use material from this text, contact us by: Phone: Fax: Web: Presentation prepared by Dr. Michael Pearson, Gretchen Gill, and Tim Scanlon of West Chester University

2 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. CHAPTER 2 Communication and the Self

3 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and the Self Communication and the Self-Concept The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication Presenting the Self: Communication as Identity Management Characteristics of Identity Management

4 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept Self-Concept : the relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself. Self Esteem : evaluations of self-worth

5 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. How the Self-Concept Develops Reflected Appraisals: The looking-glass self Reflected appraisal - each of us develops a self- concept that matches the way we believe others see us Significant others - people whose opinions we especially value Communication and The Self- Concept

6 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept How the Self-Concept Develops Social Comparisons We evaluate ourselves in terms of how we compare to others Reference groups - groups against which we compare ourselves, thereby influencing our self-esteem and self-concept

7 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept The self-concept is subjective The self-concept resists change Cognitive conservatism: tendency to cling to an existing self-concept even when evidence shows that it is obsolete Characteristics of the Self-Concept

8 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and the Self- Concept Influences on Identity Culture Ethnicity Sex and Gender

9 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept Individualistic Cultures Self is separate, individuals should be independent Individual should take care of him/herself and immediate family Friends are based on shared interests and activities Reward for individual achievement and initiative High value on autonomy, individual security, equality Culture and the Self-Concept

10 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Collectivistic Cultures People belong to extended families or a group Person should take care of extended family before self Emphasis on belonging to a very few permanent in- groups Reward for contribution to group goals High value on duty, order, tradition, age, group security, status, and hierarchy Communication and The Self- Concept Culture and the Self-Concept

11 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept Self-fulfilling prophecy - occurs when a person’s expectations of an event make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true Types of self-fulfilling prophecies: Self-imposed prophecies Imposed prophecies by others The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication

12 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Communication and The Self- Concept Have a realistic perception of yourself Have realistic expectations Have the will to change Have the skill to change Changing Your Self-Concept

13 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Identity Management – the communication strategies people use to influence how others view them.

14 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Perceived self – reflection of the self-concept, the person you believe yourself to be Presenting self – public image, the way we want others to view us Public and Private Selves

15 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management We strive to construct multiple identities. Identity management is collaborative. Identity management can be deliberate or unconscious. Identity management varies by situation. People differ in their degree of identity management. Characteristics of Identity Management

16 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Social rules govern our behavior Accomplish personal goals Sometimes identity management aims at achieving relational goals such as affiliation, control or respect Why Manage Identities?

17 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Manner – consists of a communicator’s words and nonverbal actions Appearance – personal items people use to shape an image Setting – physical items we use to influence how others view us How Do We Manage Identities? Face to Face Impression Management

18 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Mediated Communication How Do We Manage Identities? Appearance: paper, words, images, sounds Editing: including or excluding information

19 Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Presenting The Self: Communication as Identity Management Although identity management might seem manipulative, it can be an authentic form of communication. Because each person has a variety of faces that he or she can reveal, choosing which one to present need not be dishonest. Identity Management and Honesty


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