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Chapter 3 Perception: What You See Is What You Get PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In, Tenth Edition Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. For permission to use material from this text, contact us by: Phone: Fax: Web: Presentation prepared by Dr. Michael Pearson, Gretchen Gill, and Tim Scanlon of West Chester University Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
CHAPTER 3 Perception: What You See Is What You Get Perception: What You See Is What You Get
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Perception: What You See Is What You Get The Perception Process Influences on Perception Perception Checking to Prevent Misunderstandings The Accuracy—and Inaccuracy—of Perception Empathy and Communication
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Perception Process Selection Selection - first stage in perception process in which some data are chosen to attend to and others are ignored. Organization Organization - stage in the perception process that involves arranging data in a meaningful way.
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Perception Process Organization Perceptual schema - cognitive frameworks that allow us to organize the raw data we have selected according to: Appearance Social roles Interaction style Psychological traits Membership
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Perception Process Organization Stereotyping – exaggerated generalizations associated with a categorizing system Punctuation - describes the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Perception Process Interpretation Interpretation - process of attaching meaning to make sense of data Several Factors of Interpretation: Degree of involvement Past Experience Assumptions about human behavior Expectations Knowledge Self-concept Relational Satisfaction
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Influences On Perception Physiological Influences The Senses Age Health Hunger Fatigue Biological Cycles
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Influences On Perception Cultural Differences Every culture has its own worldview, its own way of looking at the world. Nonverbal behaviors also differ from one part of the world to another. Even beliefs about the very value of talk differ from one culture to another.
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Influences On Perception Social Roles Gender Roles Androgynous - combining masculine and feminine traits Occupational Roles Self-Concept Shared Narratives Narrative - perception of the world shared by a collection of people
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Accuracy—And Inaccuracy— Of Perception We Often Judge Ourselves More Charitably Than Others Self-serving bias – tendency to judge ourselves in the most generous terms possible We Tend to Favor Negative Impressions of Others Over Positive Ones We tend to more influenced by less desirable characteristics
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Accuracy—And Inaccuracy— Of Perception We Cling to First Impressions We Tend to Assume Others Are Similar to Us Labels are a way of making interpretations. Others don’t always think or feel the way we do, and assuming similarities exist can lead to problems. We select stimuli from our environment that are noticeable: intense, repetitious, or otherwise attention grabbing. We Are Influenced by What Is Most Obvious
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Perception Checking To Prevent Misunderstandings Elements of Perception Checking Perception Checking - a tool for helping you understand others accurately instead of assuming that your first interpretation is correct. A description of the behavior you noticed At least two possible interpretations of behavior A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Perception Checking To Prevent Misunderstandings Perception-Checking Considerations Completeness Nonverbal Congruency Cultural Rules
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Empathy And Communication Empathy Defined Empathy - ability to re-create another person’s perspective; experience the world from the other’s point of view Three Dimensions of Empathy: Perspective taking Emotional dimension Genuine concern Sympathy - compassion for another’s situation
Copyright © 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Empathy And Communication The “Pillow Method”: A Tool for Building Empathy Pillow Method - method for understanding an issue from several perspectives rather than with an egocentric attitude Position 1: I’m Right, You’re Wrong Position 2: You’re Right, I’m Wrong Position 3: Both Right, Both Wrong Position 4: The Issue Isn’t As Important As It Seems Conclusion: There Is Truth In All Perspectives
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Perception Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation. Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation.
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