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Who are you? Social roles: student, daughter, boss, husband Physical characteristics: tall, short, beautiful… Intellectual: smart, curious, stupid, inquisitive…

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Presentation on theme: "Who are you? Social roles: student, daughter, boss, husband Physical characteristics: tall, short, beautiful… Intellectual: smart, curious, stupid, inquisitive…"— Presentation transcript:


2 Who are you? Social roles: student, daughter, boss, husband Physical characteristics: tall, short, beautiful… Intellectual: smart, curious, stupid, inquisitive… Moods, Attitudes: optimistic, critical, energetic Belief system: liberal, atheist, Christian Skills: swimmer, carpenter, artist, musician, Ethnic/cultural: Asian, Black, Irish, Latino/a Socioeconomics: poor, rich, blue collar, white collar, middle class, etc.

3 Identity and Communication Identity is a foundation from which the communication process operates. Our social identities are powerful influences on our views of ourselves and others and how we communicate.

4 Communication and the Self-Concept  Self-concept, defined:  A relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself.  Imagine a special mirror that reflect physical features and allow you to view other aspects of yourself.  Reflection is your self-concept.

5 How Self-Concept Develops Reflected Appraisal Social Comparison importance of Reference Groups Your Own Interpretations/Reflections

6 How the Self-Concept Develops  Reflected appraisal, defined:  A mirroring of the judgments of those around you.  “Significant others” are people whose evaluations are especially influential..

7 Social Comparison  Social comparison, defined:  Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with others.  Reference groups  People we use to evaluate our own characteristics.  How can social comparison give a person an overly positive or overly negative self- concept?

8 Characteristics of Self-Concept Subjective Conservative

9 The Self-Concept is Subjective  We inflate and/or underestimate our self-perception.  How may an individual’s self-perception be influenced by:  obsolete information?  distorted feedback?  the myth of perfection?  social expectations?

10 The Self-Concept Resists Change  Why do we resist revision of our self- perception?  Cognitive conservatism, defined:  Seeking information that conforms to an existing self-concept.

11 Influences on Self-Concept Community Family Culture Ethnicity Sex / Gender roles

12 Identity Management  Identity management, defined:  The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them.  Public and Private Selves

13 Characteristics of Identity Management  Identity management is collaborative  “Process theater” in which we improvise scenes where our character reacts with others.  What happens when someone rejects or does not collaborate with our identity management attempts?

14 Characteristics of Identity Management  Identity management can be deliberate or unconscious  What situations would require deliberate identity management?  We unconsciously act in small public performances, making a particular facial expression or using a particular tone of voice. Interplay, 12th Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2012 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

15 Characteristics of Identity Management  People differ in their degrees of identity management  What are advantages to being a high self- monitor? Drawbacks?

16 Why Manage Impressions?  Social rules  Personal goals  Relational goals  It is impossible not to create impressions

17 How Do We Manage Impressions?  Face-to-face impression management  Manner / Words / Nonverbal actions  Appearance / Personal items people use to shape an image  Clothing / Hairstyle / Personal affects  Setting  Physical items people use to influence how others view them  “Artifacts” decorate the space we live in  Automobiles / Artwork

18 Identity Management and Honesty  People sometimes misrepresent themselves to gain the trust of others.  What are examples of ethical or honest identity management?  Not only one honest way to behave in every circumstance.  Impression management involves deciding which face— which part of yourself—to reveal.

19 Self Disclosure: Choosing What to Reveal  Self-disclosure  Every verbal or nonverbal behavior we engage in is self-revealing  Distinguishing factors of self-disclosure:  Honesty  Depth  Availability of information  Context of sharing

20 Models of Self-Disclosure  Degrees of Self-Disclosure: The Social Penetration Model  Two dimensions:  Breadth of information volunteered  Depth of information volunteered  Types of information revealed:  Clichés—ritualized, stock responses to social situations  Facts  Opinions  Feelings

21 Awareness of Self-Disclosure: The Johari Window Model  Johari Window  Frame contains likes, dislikes, goals, secrets, needs.  Part 1: Open area; information of which both you and the other person are aware.  Part 2: Blind area; information of which you are unaware, but the other person knows.  Part 3: Hidden area; information that you know, but aren’t willing to reveal to others.  Part 4: Unknown area: information unknown to you and others.

22 Benefits of Self-Disclosure  Catharsis  Self-clarification  Self-validation  Reciprocity  Impression formation  Relationship maintenance and enhancement  Moral obligation  Social influence  Self-defense

23 Risks of Self-Disclosure  Rejection  Negative impression  Decrease in relational satisfaction  Loss of influence  Loss of control  Hurt the other person

24 Guidelines for Self Disclosure  Is the other person important to you?  Is the risk of disclosing reasonable?  Is the self-disclosure appropriate?  Is the disclosure reciprocated?  Will the effect be constructive?

25 The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Occurs when a person’s expectations of an event/accomplishment/failure/etc. make that more likely to happen Your own S-F prophecy Others S-F prophecy about you

26 The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication  Self-fulfilling prophecy, defined:  When a person expectations of an event, and her or high subsequent behavior based on those expectations, make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have true.  Four stages:  Holding an expectation (for yourself or for others)  Behaving in accordance with that expectation  The expectation coming to pass  Reinforcing the original expectation.

27 Types of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Self-imposed  Your own expectations influence your behavior.  Research: “Communicators who believed they were incompetent proved less likely than others to pursue rewarding relationships and more likely to sabotage their existing relationships.”  When a person’s expectations govern another’s actions, whether positive or negative.  “Pygmalion” effect = positive  “Golem” effect = negative

28 Communication and Self-Esteem  Self-esteem, defined:  Part of the self-concept that involves evaluations of self- worth.  How does high or low self- esteem affect communication behavior?  What do the authors mean by: “Although self-esteem has obvious benefits, it doesn’t guarantee interpersonal success”?

29 Self-esteem vs. self-concept Changing your self-concept or improving self-esteem

30 Improving self-esteem Attack your self-destructive beliefs

31 Improving self-esteem Be realistic about yourself and the world

32 Improving self-esteem Don’t allow yourself to rationalize failure

33 Improving self-esteem Engage in self-affirmation

34 Improving self-esteem Seek out nourishing (but fair) people

35 Improving self-esteem Be reasonable: e.g., work on projects that are comparable with your skills

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