Who are you? Social roles: student, daughter, boss, husband Physical characteristics: tall, short, beautiful… Intellectual: smart, curious, stupid, inquisitive… Moods, Attitudes: optimistic, critical, energetic Belief system: liberal, atheist, Christian Skills: swimmer, carpenter, artist, musician, Ethnic/cultural: Asian, Black, Irish, Latino/a Socioeconomics: poor, rich, blue collar, white collar, middle class, etc.
Identity and Communication Identity is a foundation from which the communication process operates. Our social identities are powerful influences on our views of ourselves and others and how we communicate.
Communication and the Self-Concept Self-concept, defined: A relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself. Imagine a special mirror that reflect physical features and allow you to view other aspects of yourself. Reflection is your self-concept.
How Self-Concept Develops Reflected Appraisal Social Comparison importance of Reference Groups Your Own Interpretations/Reflections
How the Self-Concept Develops Reflected appraisal, defined: A mirroring of the judgments of those around you. “Significant others” are people whose evaluations are especially influential..
Social Comparison Social comparison, defined: Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with others. Reference groups People we use to evaluate our own characteristics. How can social comparison give a person an overly positive or overly negative self- concept?
Characteristics of Self-Concept Subjective Conservative
The Self-Concept is Subjective We inflate and/or underestimate our self-perception. How may an individual’s self-perception be influenced by: obsolete information? distorted feedback? the myth of perfection? social expectations?
The Self-Concept Resists Change Why do we resist revision of our self- perception? Cognitive conservatism, defined: Seeking information that conforms to an existing self-concept.
Influences on Self-Concept Community Family Culture Ethnicity Sex / Gender roles
Identity Management Identity management, defined: The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them. Public and Private Selves
Characteristics of Identity Management Identity management is collaborative “Process theater” in which we improvise scenes where our character reacts with others. What happens when someone rejects or does not collaborate with our identity management attempts?
Characteristics of Identity Management People differ in their degrees of identity management What are advantages to being a high self- monitor? Drawbacks?
Why Manage Impressions? Social rules Personal goals Relational goals It is impossible not to create impressions
How Do We Manage Impressions? Face-to-face impression management Manner / Words / Nonverbal actions Appearance / Personal items people use to shape an image Clothing / Hairstyle / Personal affects Setting Physical items people use to influence how others view them “Artifacts” decorate the space we live in Automobiles / Artwork
Identity Management and Honesty People sometimes misrepresent themselves to gain the trust of others. What are examples of ethical or honest identity management? Not only one honest way to behave in every circumstance. Impression management involves deciding which face— which part of yourself—to reveal.
Self Disclosure: Choosing What to Reveal Self-disclosure Every verbal or nonverbal behavior we engage in is self-revealing Distinguishing factors of self-disclosure: Honesty Depth Availability of information Context of sharing
Models of Self-Disclosure Degrees of Self-Disclosure: The Social Penetration Model Two dimensions: Breadth of information volunteered Depth of information volunteered Types of information revealed: Clichés—ritualized, stock responses to social situations Facts Opinions Feelings
Awareness of Self-Disclosure: The Johari Window Model Johari Window Frame contains likes, dislikes, goals, secrets, needs. Part 1: Open area; information of which both you and the other person are aware. Part 2: Blind area; information of which you are unaware, but the other person knows. Part 3: Hidden area; information that you know, but aren’t willing to reveal to others. Part 4: Unknown area: information unknown to you and others.
Benefits of Self-Disclosure Catharsis Self-clarification Self-validation Reciprocity Impression formation Relationship maintenance and enhancement Moral obligation Social influence Self-defense
Risks of Self-Disclosure Rejection Negative impression Decrease in relational satisfaction Loss of influence Loss of control Hurt the other person
Guidelines for Self Disclosure Is the other person important to you? Is the risk of disclosing reasonable? Is the self-disclosure appropriate? Is the disclosure reciprocated? Will the effect be constructive?
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Occurs when a person’s expectations of an event/accomplishment/failure/etc. make that more likely to happen Your own S-F prophecy Others S-F prophecy about you
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication Self-fulfilling prophecy, defined: When a person expectations of an event, and her or high subsequent behavior based on those expectations, make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have true. Four stages: Holding an expectation (for yourself or for others) Behaving in accordance with that expectation The expectation coming to pass Reinforcing the original expectation.
Types of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Self-imposed Your own expectations influence your behavior. Research: “Communicators who believed they were incompetent proved less likely than others to pursue rewarding relationships and more likely to sabotage their existing relationships.” When a person’s expectations govern another’s actions, whether positive or negative. “Pygmalion” effect = positive “Golem” effect = negative
Communication and Self-Esteem Self-esteem, defined: Part of the self-concept that involves evaluations of self- worth. How does high or low self- esteem affect communication behavior? What do the authors mean by: “Although self-esteem has obvious benefits, it doesn’t guarantee interpersonal success”?
Self-esteem vs. self-concept Changing your self-concept or improving self-esteem
Improving self-esteem Attack your self-destructive beliefs
Improving self-esteem Be realistic about yourself and the world
Improving self-esteem Don’t allow yourself to rationalize failure
Improving self-esteem Engage in self-affirmation
Improving self-esteem Seek out nourishing (but fair) people
Improving self-esteem Be reasonable: e.g., work on projects that are comparable with your skills