Presentation on theme: "“You have to be willing to engage with your enemies if you want to create a situation that ends the insurgency.” - US Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham."— Presentation transcript:
“You have to be willing to engage with your enemies if you want to create a situation that ends the insurgency.” - US Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton (Inter Conf on AFG, 20 JAN 10) UNCLASSIFIED Afghanistan Peace and Reintegration Program (APRP)
Afghan Government Led Program. Terminology: Reintegration: Is the Term Given to Taking the Fighter out of the Fight, with them Opting out of the Insurgency and Peacefully Rejoining their Communities. Reconciliation: The Process in Which an Insurgent Movement as a Whole Reaches a Political Accommodation with The Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) to Bring their Part of the Insurgency to an End. The Vehicle for Reintegration is the Afghanistan Peace & Reintegration Program (APRP)
What is APRP ? The Afghanistan Peace and Reintegration Program (APRP) is an Afghan peace program which aims to take insurgents out of the fight and return them to their communities with honor and dignity, so that they can live peaceful, healthy, productive lives. APRP includes 3 phases: 1) Social Outreach & Negotiation 2) Demobilization 3) Community Recovery and Consolidation of Peace Governed by the High Peace Council, and led by the Joint Secretariat, involving tribal, political, and religious leaders UNCLASSIFIED
APRP Broad Characteristics Afghan Led Program that peacefully returns fighters to their communities – ‘Reintegration takes fighters out of the fight’ Supports COIN Whilst Being Enabled by COIN—Offensive Tool Can Cut the Traditional Afghan Cycle of Violence Absolutely No Dilution of the Kinetic or Offensive ‘Strike’ Operations – very important that ISAF and ANSF fully understand this Utilizes Traditional Cultural Methods - Elders, Shuras etc. Acknowledges Honor, Dignity and the Local Grievances that Drove Many Fighters into the Insurgency. Provides for Community Recovery / Benefits to communities. Starts at District or Provincial level with a ‘Vetting List’ of potential Reintegrees - passed up to the Joint Secretariat (JS) in Kabul Each Reintegration Approach and Event Will be Unique. End state: Insurgents peacefully leaving the fight and returning to their communities with honor— an accelerated peace process
Drivers for Reintegration More than 85% of Insurgents are NOT ideologically driven Some type of GRIEVANCE pushed them into the insurgency Most insurgents fight reasonably close to their homes Insurgents, especially under pressure, will tire of fighting Reintegration candidates set simple condition: –Security –Freedom of Movement –Ability to support their family –Involvement in some level of governance A grievance resolution process executed through the local community is the foundation of APRP UNCLASSIFIED
What Reintegration is NOT “Surrender” or “Laying down of arms” Providing jobs or money to insurgents to stop fighting Giving territory to insurgents Compromising on human rights UNCLASSIFIED
APRP Structure GIRoA led & partnered at every level NDS MOD PoA High Peace Council Provincial Peace Committees (PPC) District Reintegration Committee Community = Main Effort MoF MAIL MoHRA MoBTA MRRD IDLG PoPW MoLSA MoEd MRRD GMIC MOI Service Delivery Ministries partnered by HQ ISAF (DCOS Stab) Security Ministries Partnered by NTM-A and HQ ISAF (DCOS Strategic Partnering) Sub-National APRP structure partnered by IJC (supported by PRTs) COMISAF, SCR KLE with PoA Ri Cell Policy Execution Joint Secretariat Joint Secretariat partnered by HQ ISAF (F-RIC) Supported by IJC Support provided top-down Initiative often bottom-up
Your Role In the Three Phases OUTREACH Strategic communications Peace building capacity and development of government institutions Negotiation and grievance resolution Sub-national governance and outreach DEMOBILISATION Biometrics, vetting, registration, assessment and immediate support Weapons management and community security Detainee release CONSOLIDATION Community recovery Literacy, religious and vocational education Agriculture conservation corps Public works corps Integration to the ANSF Outreach - ‘FIND and TRACK’ You are to - Assist with Identifying and Report Opportunities Where you Come Across Them. Demobilization & Consolidation / Development ‘PROTECT’, ‘SUPPORT’ & ‘SUSTAIN’ You Are To - Protect and Support the Security of Reintegration Opportunities, Communities Engaged in Reintegration and Reintergrees. APRP has Worried the Taliban and it is Attacking Reintergrees as a Means of Dissuading More from Joining APRP. You Are To - Engage With and Encourage your Afghan Partners (ANSF) to Discuss APRP and Encourage its Acceptance Amongst the Local Population.
RPCs and Afghan Hands Regional Provincial Coordinators (RPCs) –UNDP Employees –The MOST influential player in APRP in your RC –“Action Officers” of the JS Afghan Hands –Work closely with the RPCs, PJSTs, PGs, MoI, NDS, MoD, PRTs and ISAF –Located throughout Afghanistan –Majority are working in reintegration –Conduit between GIRoA and ISAF
Demobilization Event Taking Fighters Out of the Fight ! UNCLASSIFIED
Role of PRT Engage Provincial Peace Committees (PPCs) –Work reintegration talking points into discussions –Can facilitate access and influence to political contacts –ISAF and PRTs should assist in coordination with security (ANSF), reintegration and development efforts with JS and line ministries Build capacity of PJSTs –PJST capacity varies from province to province –Encourage PJST reporting to Kabul –Facilitate coordination with line ministries and shuras –Mentor on monitoring of community recovery activities –Advise media/communications opportunities and outreach
Role of PRT Support Community Recovery –Outreach: Help PPCs, PGs and communities Reintegrees not focus of community recovery programs “Supporting the Peace Process” –Coordination: Support PJST coordination with stakeholders including GIRoA line departments Provincial and Community Development Councils District Development Advisors Afghan Social Outreach Program District Community Councils NGOs –Participation: Provincial Grants Committee
Role of PRT Leverage ARP/CERP to fill APRP gaps –Authorized to support outreach, demobilization and community recovery programs –Fills short and medium-term gaps in community recovery efforts Help identify problems early –Easy to do with good PPC/PJST relationships –Address them directly with PPC/PJST –Escalate concerns Encourage Afghans to talk with Afghans Utilize your Afghan Hand(s)
Role of PRT References and Resources: –Unclass: https://ronna-afghan.harmonieweb.org/FRIC/https://ronna-afghan.harmonieweb.org/FRIC/ /APRP Documents/All Documents –“Reintegration Financing Options”: describes all possible sources of funding for APRP and how to access them. –“APRP Provincial Budget Summary”: summarizes the four provincial APRP accounts. –SOPs for provincial float accounts, small grants and transition assistance accounts. –“PRT Fact Sheet on ARP Funding”: summary guidance for field personnel on using ARP funds. –Afghanistan Reintegration Program SOP: MAAWS-A May 2011: provides official operational guidance on using ARP funds. –“ISAF Guidance on Provincial Peace Committees”: outline of roles and responsibilities for PPCs. –“APRP priority districts”” list of Joint Secretariat approved priority provinces and districts. –“PRT Reintegration Guidance 2010”: previously issued 2010 NATO SCR reintegration guidance. –ISAF-S: http://portal.hq.ms.isaf.nato.int/frichttp://portal.hq.ms.isaf.nato.int/fric –IJC maintains a reintegration Wiki (ISAF-S) http://ijcportal.ijhq.ms.isaf.nato.int/sites/idccft/afganwiki/pages/reintegrat ion.aspxhttp://ijcportal.ijhq.ms.isaf.nato.int/sites/idccft/afganwiki/pages/reintegrat ion.aspx IJC FRAGO: HQ IJC//FRAGO//534-2011 “Updated Reintegration Guidance”
“5 Rs” Enable our Afghan Partners with …. Reporting... early and often –Through GIRoA and ISAF chains Requesting... information, resources, support –Through GIRoA and ISAF chains Resolving... grievances –Help ensure APRP is as inclusive as possible Reinforcing... security of community / reintegrees –Periodic assessment is key Relationships … between GIRoA organizations
Future Challenges & Opportunities Limited Ministerial Capacity, and even more limited sub- national structures Provincial/districts must embrace the existing guidance Balancing APRP across the nation, regions, populations Creating understanding and synchronize the APRP across the coalition GIRoA has come a long way; there is much more to do
APRP Provincial Budgets Regional Coordinators UNDP OUTREACH DEMOBRECOVERY $1.0 M $3.8 M$1.8 M $10.0 M Float Account ($10K) ▪ Outreach and Peace gatherings ▪ Initiation of Grievance Resolution ▪ Immediate aid for potential reintegrees and their families ▪ Basic literacy or skills training ▪ No salaries Operating Account ▪ Salaries for local hires (drivers, cleaners, guards etc) ▪ PJST communication and services ▪ PPC hospitality and travel costs ▪ Office rent, maintenance etc ▪ Recurring items TA Account ▪ TA only for formally enrolled ▪ Paid from day one of formal enrollment ▪ $120/month, max 3 months ▪ Only insurgents are eligible, not foreign fighters and/or those with a criminal record Small Grants Account ▪ Requires reintegrees ▪ Local community and district level initiatives (infrastructure, irrigation, agriculture etc) ▪ Tier 1: Small (<$25K) scale community projects, not more than $50K per community ▪ Tier 2: Larger (<$200K) scale district level projects Joint Secretariat PJST Donors APRP Trust Fund
Provincial Float Account Account Purpose:- PPC and PJST Outreach and Peace Gatherings - Initiation of Grievance Resolution - Immediate transition aid for reintegrees/families - Local messaging in direct support of APRP - Civil Society engagement and facilitation - No Salaries Control:- Controlled by the PJSTs - Replenished by JS based on PJST verified documentation. - PG and Head of PJST signatories Funding principle:- Pull Recommendations:- Make sure funds are used according to SOP (especially if PJST has Operating Budget) - Should be replenished after spent 70%, depending on PJST executing rate recommend to replenish earlier. - PJST finance/adm officer should communicate w/ JS
Provincial Operating Budget Account Account Purpose:- Operating PPCs and PJSTs - Salaries for local hires (drivers, cleaners, guards etc) - PJST communication and services - PPC hospitality and domestic travel costs - Office rent, maintenance etc - Other recurring items Control:- Controlled by the PJSTs - PJST report back to JS on a monthly basis - PG and Head of PJST signatories Funding principle:- Pushed quarterly (approx $30K per province) Recommendations:- Funds should be used according to individual detailed PJST operating budget - PJST reports back (includes approved verification) to JS on a monthly basis - PJST finance/adm officer should communicate with JS
Provincial Transition Assistance Account Account Purpose:- Support provided to facilitate smooth transition - Paid to a FORMALLY ENROLLED candidate - Must be an insurgent, not a foreign fighter, or criminal - Monthly rate of $120 USD per person, per month - TA pmts limited to 3 mths unless JS authorizes extension - Payment to candidate may be cash or goods “in-kind” Control:- PG is responsible to administer TA prgm via the PJST - Candidates are considered “FORMAL” per vetting SOP - Funds are deposited into PJST account upon JS approval Funding principle:- Funds pushed to PJST as approved (covers 90 package) Recommendations:- Paid according to TA SOP – TA is made available on formal enrollment event - Cash pmts are flexible; other goods may be requested - PJST should report to PG & JS any suspected misuse
Provincial Small Grants Account Account Purpose:- Funding to support local initiatives of reintegrees and their communities - Timely - addresses local needs w/ immediate peace dividends to individuals and communities - Bridges the gap between dmob phase & line ministry community development projects - Small Grants are funded on a “two-tier” system Control:- Provincial Grants Committee approves all proposals - Tier 1: Delivered via Community Dev Councils (CDCs) - Tier 1: <$25K; not to exceed $50K in total - Tier 2: Delivered via District Dev Assemblies (DDAs) - Tier 2: Capped at $200K per; two grants total per Funding principle:- Pushed from UNDP to PJST as proposal is approved Recommendations:- Technically feasible w/o sustainment funding tail - Ex: Road repair, education, irrigation, non-Gov clinics - Projects monitored by implementing partner, UNDP and PJST Development Officer
JANUARY 2012 A NATIONAL COVERAGE ! COMMUNITY RECOVERY ACTIVITIES BADAKHSHAN TAKHAR KUNDUZ BALKH JOWZJAN FARYAB SAR-E PUL SAMANGAN BAGHLAN BADGHIS HERATGHOR FARAH NIMROZ HELMAND KANDAHAR ZABUL DAYKUNDI URUZGAN PAKTIKA GHAZNI WARDAK BAMYAN NURISTAN KUNAR NANGARHAR PANJSHAYR LAGHMAN KAPSIA PARWAN KABUL LOGAR PAKTIYA KHOST Small Grants - funds release approved National Solidarity Prog (community projects) National Area Based Prog (district projects) National Rural Access Prog (roads) Vocational Education (education) Public Works Corps. (infrastructure) Agricultural package (agriculture) HALO Demining OMAR Demining Small Grants available to all communities with enrolled reintegrees
Syndicate work Syndicate – 1 (Ghazni) Syndicate – 2 (Faryab) Syndicate – 3 (Baghlan) Syndicate – 4 (Ghor) Syndicate – 5 (Badghis) Questions To Answer: –What are your top 2 challenges associated with this scenario? [Hint: review the Summary/5Rs] –What questions do you need answers to / RFIs? –How do you advise your Provincial Governor? Store results on the network before COB on Thursday Friday presentation 10’ per group,
Back-up Slides ISAF Force Reintegration Cell (FRIC) UNCLASSIFIED
Outreach, Confidence Building and Negotiation In order to “Qualify” to reintegrate: “I declare that I accept the authority of GIRoA and denounce violence and terrorism and that I will live according to the laws of Afghanistan”. (no negotiation with foreign extremists) Messaging Outreach –PPRC – convened to inc members ANA, ANP, NDS and Ulema Heads, inc civil society, UNAMA and PRT. –DPRCs – assisted by mobile teams and IDLG. Assessment - Questionnaire responsibility MoBTA lead with IDLG. –Provincial Reintegration Committee (PPRC) Mobile teams establish contact. –Collate and disseminate results – MoBTA with GMIC and Nat Strat Com. Grievance Resolution – Shaks-e-Savoomi (mediators), Shura-i-Mahali (local Shura)
Demobilization Specified Tasks Weapons Management : MOI supported by NDS, MOD, ISAF and UN collect, register weapons. MOD will have lead for storing operational weapons. MOI will collect and determine the final status of weapons at the district and provincial levels. Vetting: MOI lead for collecting biometric and identifying data with the support of NDS, MOD, ISAF and UN. JS will liaise with ISAF and ANSF to place ex-combatants on a restricted target list. Immediate Needs, Security and Monitoring: MOI, assisted by NDS and MOD will provide security. ANSF and ISAF will work closely to establish the security risks in each reintegration case. Transport, logistical support and Security – to be provided by ANSF, ISAF, JS and UN. Menu of Recovery Options: MoD/ANA--conduct communication plan to encourage all ethnic groups to apply for ANSF Facilitate reintegrees into ANSF after vetting and reintegration. (Jt Order)
Demobilization Weapons Management Weapons Management : MOI supported by NDS, MOD, ISAF and UN collect, register weapons. Once registered they may be returned. MOD will have lead for storing operational weapons. However MOI will collect weapons and determine the final status of weapons at the district and provincial levels.
Demobilization GIRoA Vetting MOI lead for collecting biometric and identifying data with the support of NDS, MOD, ISAF and UN. Data to be sent to JS Reintegration Tracking and Monitoring Database (accessible to GIRoA). Until JS system established, MOI uses existing MOI criminal database with hard copies to JS and ISAF. JS will liaise with ISAF and ANSF to place ex-combatants on a restricted target list.
Community and PPRC decide if they are prepared to accept responsibility for the ex-combatant. If not, MOI responsible for taking them into a centralized reintegration process and ensuring their security. JS will develop a process by which communities will vouch for an INS. A Grievance Resolution process will be started. Demobilization Community Vetting and Grievance Resolution
Immediate humanitarian support will be provided; the families of the INS may also need and receive assistance Safe Houses, Demob Centres – established in Districts by PGs. MOI, assisted by NDS and MOD will provide security – not a detention facility! MOI, assisted by NDS and MOD, will be the lead for community security against intimidation. ANSF and ISAF will work closely to establish the security risks in each reintegration case. Grievance Resolution will be achieved during this initial period but is more likely to continue. Demobilization Immediate Needs, Security and Monitoring
Consolidation A “menu of recovery options” National Community Recovery Plan (MRRD) Religious Mentoring and Education (MoHRA), Vocational and Literacy Training (MOLSAMD, MOED) Public Works Corps Plan (MOPW) Agricultural Conservation Corps (ACC) (MAIL with MRRD) Integration into ANSF (MoI, MoD) Specific “menu options” provided to each community depend on needs assessment conducted by DRC and PP&RC Not every community gets every menu option National Community Recovery will involve all members of the community— not just ex-combatants - APRP Program Document, July 2010
Afghan Local Police and Reintegration ALP aligns with the principles of Reintegration ALP is not a primary tool for reintegration Reintegration efforts do not dictate the location of ALP sites Post-reintegration, communities may consider individuals for ALP USFOR-A FRAGO 10-287, 05 Sep 2010
FRIC Org LNO to IJC Civilian Deputy Director Coord/Admin Intel SupportInfo OpsProgrammeOps Director Policy Analysis LNOs Fiscal Oversight Outreach Demobilization Consolidation Policy Joint Secretariat Fusion & Metrics XO/Aide COS
Potential Stage 1 (Outreach) Requirements (Identified in APRP Final Program Document) Government / Non-Government organizations with expertise in conflict resolution (if approved ARP education program). Per-Diem/Transportation Capacity Building for: (Reintegration Training) Joint Secretariat MoBTA IDLG MOHRA ANSF Prov/Dist Governors District Assessment Questionnaire (MoBTA) Strategic Communications Media Traditional Forms (Jirga/Mosque) Grievance Resolution Mediators (Salary/Per-Diem) Nominated Shaks-e-Sevoomi Discretionary budget for political, security (Not Salaries) and financial support to enable outreach and negotiation activities. Establish Provincial Peace & Reintegration Committee (Salaries for contracted help) Independent third-party political assessment, monitoring and evaluation of the reintegration process. ARP Funded CERP funding may be used for Outreach activities throughout the entire 3-Stage process. For example, using CERP projects to build trust with a community willing to promote/accept reintegration Essentially setting the stage for future Reintegration type projects. CERP Funded RFM RFM may be used to fund all reintegration requirements not legally funded with ARP or CERP. Availability and the amount of time it takes to obtain authorization may be a factor with the RFM. Reintegration Finance Mechanism (RFM) “Trust Fund” 39
Potential Stage 2 (Demobilization) Requirements (Identified in APRP Final Program Document) District Assessment Questionnaire Reintegration Tracking and Monitoring Database Immediate Assistance to reintegrees (stipend) Weapon registering Reintegree ID Card 3 rd Party arbitrator for conflict resolution purposes. Bio-Metrics ARP Funded CERP funding may be used for Outreach activities throughout the entire 3-Stage process. For example, using CERP projects to build trust with a community willing to promote/accept reintegration Essentially setting the stage for future Reintegration type projects. CERP Funded RFM RFM may be used to fund all reintegration requirements not legally funded with ARP or CERP. Availability and the amount of time it takes to obtain authorization may be a factor with the RFM. Reintegration Finance Mechanism (RFM) “Trust Fund” 40
Potential Stage 3 (Community Recovery) Requirements (Identified in APRP Final Program Document) Shuras (Process Recovery) Vocational/Literacy/Civic Education Training (Reintegrees/Peaceful) Materials/Training for Teachers Women Education Opportunities (Separate Classes) Apprenticeship Opportunities (Supplement Conventional Training) Learning Facilities (Lease) Refurbish Furniture Supplies Madrassas (Mentoring) Reintegrees/High Risk Youth) Study Visits ARP Funded Community Recovery Support Poor communities accepting of Reintegration Formation/Development of Community Development Council Agricultural Conservation Corps Train/Develop Agriculture Conservation Corps Offer irrigation, watershed management, soil erosion, reforestation, fence construction etc. Public Works Projects Train Public Works Corps Offer road construction, maintenance, and emergency response Relocation/resettlement Notes: Under CERP, training may not be provided by Military or GIRoA Officials Community Recovery – Use CERP capabilities to reconstruct reintegrated communities and provide opportunities for reintegrees CERP Funded RFM RFM may be used to fund all reintegration requirements not legally funded with ARP or CERP. Availability and the amount of time it takes to obtain authorization may be a factor with the RFM. Reintegration Finance Mechanism (RFM) “Trust Fund” 41
Assistance Requirements From the APRP center to the periphery Line Ministries – provide support for social and political outreach, training in grievance resolution, mobile teams, financial support and coordination cells (MoI, NDS) Provincial Governor – Will receive guidance on reintegration, demobilization, peace building and government policy, as well as financial support for shuras, jirgas and projects (direct payment to projects). Governor’s Office – Technical and mobile teams will be vetted and recruited and trained in grievance resolution, demobilization and peace building. Capability for planning, reporting and evaluating. PPRCs – receive orientation training and assistance with travel related issues. –NOTE: Joint Secretariat’s Technical Committee has received an NGO proposal for APRP to fund a training program to educate provinces. Until assistance processes and techniques solidify, expect every APRP event to vary widely in timing, communication and structure.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.