Nutrition Vocabulary Mineral salt Monounsaturated fats Nyctalopia Osteoporosis Ovolactovegetarians Polyunsaturated fats Protein Saturated fats Semivegetarians Starch Trace elements Vitamins Vegans
Nutritional Considerations Nutrients Carbohydrates Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Water Roles Growth, repair & tissue maintenance Regulation of body processes Production of energy Science of substances found in food that are essential to life
Nutrition Chapter 4 Carbohydrate most efficient, should intake 55-60 percent of total diet Sugars – Simple (sugars) and complex (starch and fiber) – Monosaccharides single sugars (fruits, syrup and honey) Glucose – Disaccharides 2 sugars combined (milk sugar, table sugar) – Should account for <15% of caloric intake
Nutrition Chapter 4 Carbohydrate Starches – Complex CHO – Long chain glucose units – Rice, potatoes, breads – Body cannot use starch directly Broken down in simple sugars Unused starches and sugars are stored as glycogen to be used by the body later Inadequate CHO intake results in protein utilization for energy
Fats - most concentrated Essential for normal growth and development saturated- from animal sources monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fats= liquid form from plants Protein - needed for growth, maintenance, repair to make enzymes, many hormones and antibodies to fight infection. Amino acids Should encompass 12-15% of daily caloric intake
Amino Acids – Basic units that compose protein – 20 amino acids compose the majority of body protein – Most can be produced by the body while others (essential) must be consumed – Animal products contain all essential amino acids – Incomplete sources (i.e. plants sources) do not contain all essential amino acids
Vitamins - Fat Soluble A- maintains skin/cells that line the body, bone/tooth development, vision in dim light –l–liver, milk,deep green/yellow fruits/veggies night blindness, dry skin, growth failure D- normal bone growth and development –s–sunlight, dairy products, eggs/fish Rickets E- protects cell membranes –v–vegetable oils breakage of RBC leading to anemia K- production of blood clotting substances –g–green leafy vegetables increased bleeding time
Vitamins- water soluble Thiamin- needed for the release of energy from CHO, fats, proteins – cereal products, pork, peas lack of energy, nerve problems Riboflavin- energy from CHO, fats, proteins – milk, liver, fruits.veg., breads/cereals dry skin, cracked lips Niacin- same as Riboflavin – liver, meat, poultry, peanut butter skin problems, diarrhea, mental depression B 6 - metabolism of protein, production of hemoglobin – white meats, whole grains, liver, bananas poor growth, anemia B 12 - production of genetic material, maintains CNS – foods of animal origin neurological problems, anemia
Vitamins- water soluble Folic acid- production of genetic material – wheat germ, liver anemia C- maintain connective tissue, tooth/bone formation – fruits.veg. Scurvy Pantothenic acid, Biotin-energy from CHO,fats, proteins
Minerals Calcium- bone/tooth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction – dairy products osteoporosis Phosophorus-skeletal development – meats/dairy products Sodium/potassium- maintenance of fluid balance, nerve conduction – salt Iron-formation of hemoglobin, carries oxygen – liver, red meats, enriched breads/cereals iron deficiency anemia Magnesium (energy supplying reactions)
Minerals Copper- same as iron, liver, nuts, shellfish anemia Zinc- normal growth and development – seafood and meats skin problems and delayed normal growth Iodine- production of the hormone thyroxin – iodized salt mental and growth retardation Fluorine- strengthens bones and teeth – fluoridated water teeth are less resistant to decay
Water Most essential of all nutrients 60% of the body weight for energy production and normal digestion of other nutrients temperature control min. of 2.5 liters of water/day
Pre-game Meal What you eat several days before competition is more important than 3 hrs before the game. 1. Large amounts of CHO. 2. Types of food that is easily digested to decrease injury to abdomen. CHO are best. 3. Foods should not cause gastrointestinal irritation. Carbonated drinks and gum should be avoided= gas. 4. Water intake increased. Avoid coffee, whole milk, tea. 5. Eat 3-4 hours before competition. 6. Athlete should feel satisfied after eating- psychological reasons.
Body Composition Avg. Body fat percentage Men= 12-15% college 8-12% athletes Women= 20-25% college 10-18% endurance athletes Techniques of body composition Hydrostatic weighing Skinfold Electrical impedance
Weight Loss/gain Weight loss. Diet alone: successful only 2% of the time. – 35-45% of weight loss is by lean tissue. – Minimum caloric intake for female 1000-1200 and males 1200-1400 calories/day. Exercise: involves 80-90% loss of fat tissue. – Almost as difficult to lose weight as in diet alone. Diet and exercise combo: most efficient. – A moderate caloric restriction combined with moderate increase in caloric expenditure. – Lose 1.5-2 lbs per week. – The long haul approach is most efficient and longer lasting.
Weight Gain Goal is to gain lean tissue. Muscle mass increased by muscle work combined with increase in dietary intake. Rate of gain is 1-2 lbs per week. 1 lb of fat = 3500 calories. 1 lb of lean body tissue= 2500 calories= less fat more protein and water. Add 500-1000 calories a day will give added boost for energy in a weight training program.
Assessing Caloric Balance Calories/gram Fat= 9 cal/g CHO= 4 cal/g Protein= 4 cal/g 3500 cal/lb of fat Caloric balance = #Of calories consumed – # Of calories expended Calories may be expended by: – Basal metabolism – Work – Excretion