2 Food and Energy Why do you need to eat food? To obtain energy!!The energy available in food can be measured by burning it. When you burn it the energy is converted to heat which can be measured.Calorie is equal to 1000 calories,
3 The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius is called a calorieDietary calories is represented with a capitol C.Calorie is equal to 1000 caloriesThe science of nutrition is the study of food and its effects on the body
4 NutrientsNutrients are substances in food that supply the energy and raw materials your body uses for growth, repair, and maintenance.Nutrients the body needs are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals
5 Water Water is the most important nutrient Every cell in the human body needs water because many of the body’s processes, including chemical reactions, take place in waterHumans need to drink at least 1 liter of water each day to avoid being dehydrated.
6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body Simple sugars are smaller molecules (monosaccharide and disaccharides) found in fruits, honey and sugar caneComplex carbohydrates are larger molecules (polysaccharides) found in potatoes, grains, and vegetablesThese get broken down into simple sugars
7 FatsFats or lipids are an important for making cell membranes, myelin sheaths, and certain hormones.Consuming more fat than you need can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.
8 ProteinsProteins supply raw materials from growth and repair of structures such a skin and muscle.Proteins are also involved in regulatory and transport functionsExamples include insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar levels and hemoglobin which helps the blood transport oxygen
9 VitaminsVitamins are organic molecules that help regulate body processes often working with enzymesVitamins obtained from food we eat
10 MineralsMinerals are inorganic nutrients that the body needs, usually small amountsExamples are calcium, iron, and magnesium
11 Nutrition and a Balanced Diet The basic idea behind a balanced diet is to eat a variety foods each day and limit your intake of fatty, sugary foods