Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) Copyright © 2010 Pearson.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) Copyright © 2010 Pearson."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

2

3

4 Black Death, 1348–1350 Precursor: overpopulation & malnutrition Agricultural improvements increase food supply; European population doubles, 1000–1300, thereafter outstripping food production 1315–1317: crop failures produce worst famine of Middle Ages Bubonic plague (“Black Death”) followed trade routes from Asia into Europe, probably via fleas on rats from Black Sea area Popular remedies: relevant medical knowledge absent Aromatic amulets Temperance & moderation Promiscuity & abandon Flight & seclusion Self-flagellation Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

5

6

7

8

9

10 Black Death (cont.) Economic consequences: Dramatic labor shortage, climbing wages for laborers & artisans Falling agricultural, climbing luxury prices—noble landowners hardest hit Attempts to freeze wages & force peasants to stay on land  peasant revolts Cities (artisans) benefit from demand for luxury goods Political/social consequences: Artisan guilds win some political power Kings take advantage of weakened nobility & church Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

11 Discussion Question What were the causes of the Black Death, and why did it spread so quickly throughout Western Europe? Where was it most virulent? How did it affect European society? How important do you think disease is in changing the course of history?

12 Hundred Years’ War (1337– 1453) Nominal cause: English king Edward III’s claim on French throne, thwarted by accession of first Valois king, Philip VI (r. 1328–1350) Larger cause: English-French territorial, commercial, & cultural rivalry French weakness: larger & wealthier, but more internal discord Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

13

14 Hundred Years’ War (cont.) First phase (under Edward III) Flanders allies with England, recognizing Edward as king of France, 1340 English seize Calais, 1346 English rout near Poitiers, 1356; French king John II taken captive 1360 treaty: John II ransomed, English claims in France recognized, Edward renounces claim to French throne Second phase (Treaty of Troyes) English war effort flags due to peasant revolts Recommences with English victory at Agincourt, 1415 Duchy of Burgundy joins English Treaty of Troyes, 1420: named English Henry V successor to French Charles VI, but both soon die Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

15

16 Hundred Years’ War (cont.) Third phase (Joan of Arc) French teenage peasant Joan of Arc declares call from God to deliver besieged Orléans from English Tired English repulsed, followed by string of French victories Joan captured 1430, tried & burned as heretic at English-held Rouen English forced back, conclude war with Calais as only French possession (1453) Summary: 68 years of peace, 44 of war; France devastated, but national feeling awakened; English & French peasants suffer most from taxes & services Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

17

18 Late Medieval Church Papal monarchy established by Pope Innocent III strengthened the church politically, but weakened it spiritually—undermined popular support Innocent’s successors: tightened & centralized church legal proceedings; elaborated clerical taxation; broadened papal powers of appointment Demise of Hohenstaufens took away galvanizing enemy of church, made it vulnerable Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

19 Boniface VIII (r. 1294–1303) vs. Philip the Fair (r. 1285–1314) French & English kings raise taxes on clergy; Boniface decrees new taxes need papal consent French king Philip the Fair cuts off flow of money to Rome; Boniface concedes Boniface issues Unam Sanctam (1302), as confrontation with Philip ramps up, asserting subordination of temporal to spiritual power French army assault & molest Boniface, who later dies Result: popes never again seriously threaten European rulers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

20

21

22 Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) Pope Clement V moves papal court here to escape strife of Rome To get needed revenue, papal taxes go up, and sale of indulgences begins Pope John XXII (r. 1316–1334)—most powerful Avignon pope Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

23 John Wycliffe (d. 1384) and John Huss (d. 1415) Lollards: followers of Wycliffe, English spokesman for rights of royalty against popes; challenged indulgences, papal infallibility, transubstantiation—anticipates Protestantism Hussites: followers of Huss, rector of University of Prague—similar to Lollards Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

24

25

26 Great Schism (1378–1417) Urban VI and Clement VII—rival popes; England & allies support Urban, France & allies support Clement Conciliar Theory: idea that a representative council could regulate actions of pope Council of Pisa (1409–1410): deposed Urban & Clement (who refused to step down), elected Alexander V—three contending popes Council of Constance (1414–1417): provided for regular councils every few years Council of Basel (1431–1449): height of conciliar government of church; negotiated directly with heretics (Hussites) Results of conciliar movement: greater religious responsibility to laity & secular governments Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

27 Mongol Rule in Russia (1243– 1480) Mongols, or Tatars, sweep through China, Islamic world, & Russia, 13th c. Ghengis Khan (1155–1227) invades Russia, 1223 Russian cities become tribute-paying principalities of part of Mongol Empire known as the Golden Horde Russians impressed into Mongol military service, women taken as wives/concubines, some sold into slavery Partial Islamization of Russian society 1380: beginning of Mongol decline in Russia; ends 1480 under Ivan the Great Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

28

29


Download ppt "The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) Copyright © 2010 Pearson."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google