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Wildlife Animal User Training The University of Montana Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee.

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Presentation on theme: "Wildlife Animal User Training The University of Montana Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wildlife Animal User Training The University of Montana Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee

2 Objectives Ensuring safety Ensuring safety –Of you & your co- workers –Of animals Occupational health program Occupational health program Review of zoonotic diseases of wildlife Review of zoonotic diseases of wildlife

3 Protecting Yourself Situation awareness Situation awareness –“Perception of environmental elements within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future” Endsley, M. R. (1995) –“Knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do” Adam, E. C. (1993)

4 Situation Awareness Necessary components Necessary components –Knowledge of environment, terrain & their special concerns –Anticipation of changing conditions –Rapid collection & processing of new information –Training in how to respond appropriately –Always staying alert & engaged

5 Special Environments Desert/arid conditions Desert/arid conditions –Hyperthermia –Dehydration Winter/mountainous conditions Winter/mountainous conditions –Hypothermia –Frostbite –Avalanche –Snow blindness

6 Lack of or Inadequate Situation Awareness One of the primary factors in accidents is attributed to human erroraccidentshuman error

7 Safety Training Single most important component of being prepared & staying safe Single most important component of being prepared & staying safe Training provided by principal investigator (PI) may include Training provided by principal investigator (PI) may include –Survival –Injury prevention –First aid –Team communication

8 Common Field Injuries Knee & ankle from slips & falls Knee & ankle from slips & falls Stings & bites Stings & bites –Known allergy? carry MD-prescribed carry MD-prescribed epinephrine pen (“epi pen”) Muscle strain from lifting or falling Muscle strain from lifting or falling

9 Common Field Injuries Driving accidents can result in serious injury or death Driving accidents can result in serious injury or death –Highway –Off-road vehicles ATVs, snow mobiles ATVs, snow mobiles Proper training Proper trainingrequired ALWAYS wear ALWAYS wear a HELMET

10 Basic Personal Safety Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) As necessary, –Gloves –Sturdy boots –Eye protection –Coveralls –Mask or respirator

11 Basic Safety Principles Sharps containers  small sizes available for field work Sharps containers  small sizes available for field work Good hygiene  especially hands  waterless hand sanitizer (2 & 4.5 oz bottles) Good hygiene  especially hands  waterless hand sanitizer (2 & 4.5 oz bottles) Protect human food and water Protect human food and water Communicate with your team Communicate with your team

12 In Case of Accident... Seek medical attention as necessary Seek medical attention as necessary Work related?  tell medical provider Work related?  tell medical provider Worker’s comp claim Worker’s comp claim –Supervisor will have forms or find at workerscomp/accidentinvest1.docx workerscomp/ workerscomp/ Accident reporting packet in glove box of UM vehicles Accident reporting packet in glove box of UM vehicles

13 Injury from Animals Bites/scratches Bites/scratches –Clean & disinfect ASAP –Consider aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen for pain/inflammation –Antibiotics from MD may be needed Kicks/blunt trauma Kicks/blunt trauma –Large ruminants  blows to the head, chest or abdomen can cause internal injuries –First aid, then medical attention

14 Early Reporting of Injury Absolutely imperative to inform Absolutely imperative to inform –Direct Supervisor –Principal Investigator –Co-workers when in remote field areas Any unusual symptoms  seek medical help immediately Any unusual symptoms  seek medical help immediately Best defense is a good offense  Provide a complete history to assist physicians Best defense is a good offense  Provide a complete history to assist physicians

15 Keeping Animals Safe Situation Awareness Situation Awareness Knowledge Knowledge Training Training Co-workers Co-workers Group training in blood collection before going to the field

16 Danger to You? Danger to Them Weather danger Weather danger –Heat Overheating, dehydration Overheating, dehydration Heat stress (including fish)  all magnified by capture Heat stress (including fish)  all magnified by capture Trap/capture cool times of day & provide shade Trap/capture cool times of day & provide shade Provide moist food to prevent dehydration Provide moist food to prevent dehydration Cool packs for drugged animals Cool packs for drugged animals Reduce stress  minimize shrill noises, cover eyes, monitor for shock Reduce stress  minimize shrill noises, cover eyes, monitor for shock

17 Weather Danger –Cold Hypothermia, slowed metabolism & anesthetic recovery Hypothermia, slowed metabolism & anesthetic recovery Warm packs for anesthetized animals Warm packs for anesthetized animals Provide nest material for warmth Provide nest material for warmth Provide food for energy Provide food for energy Monitor body temperature & vital signs Monitor body temperature & vital signs

18 Euthanasia IACUC requires each Animal Use Protocol (AUP) to have a euthanasia contingency plan for serious injury to animals IACUC requires each Animal Use Protocol (AUP) to have a euthanasia contingency plan for serious injury to animals Serious injury – compound fractures, gaping wounds to chest/abdomen, severe unresponsive shock, head trauma – that precludes survival in the wild Serious injury – compound fractures, gaping wounds to chest/abdomen, severe unresponsive shock, head trauma – that precludes survival in the wild 2013 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia 2013 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasiawww.avma.org/KB/Policies/Documents/euthanasia.pdf

19 Occupational Health Why? Why? –Mandatory for UM to maintain animal research program accreditation Why us? Why us? –Everyone listed on an AUP must and any one else interested may participate

20 Risk Assessment IACUC sponsored occupational health monitoring program to protect you IACUC sponsored occupational health monitoring program to protect you Risk assessment performed by occupational health physician based on info you provide Risk assessment performed by occupational health physician based on info you provide All medical info stored confidentially at physician’s office All medical info stored confidentially at physician’s office riskassessment.php riskassessment.php riskassessment.php riskassessment.php

21 Review: Zoonotic Diseases Zoonosis review is a requirement for accreditation of UM animal research program Zoonosis review is a requirement for accreditation of UM animal research program Zoonosis = disease that can be transferred from animals to humans Zoonosis = disease that can be transferred from animals to humans Many of the diseases reviewed may be transferred from tissues & body fluids of dead or live animals Many of the diseases reviewed may be transferred from tissues & body fluids of dead or live animals

22 Rabies Rhabdovirus Rhabdovirus Fatal if no treatment or vaccine protection Fatal if no treatment or vaccine protection Infects all warm- blooded mammals Infects all warm- blooded mammals Sylvatic rabies  wildlife in life cycle Sylvatic rabies  wildlife in life cycle Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC “Mad” Rabies

23 Rabies “Dumb” rabies “Dumb” rabies Wildlife Wildlife –Lose fear of humans –Unusually “friendly” –Uncharacteristic places –Uncharacteristic times of day –Neurological signs –Photo credits - CDC Rabid fox

24 Rabies Wildlife reservoirs in US Wildlife reservoirs in US –Raccoons (38%) –Skunks (30%) –Bats (17%) –Foxes (6%) Silver-haired bat

25 Rabies Incidence in U.S. CDC

26 Rabies Transmission Animal bites (virus in saliva) Animal bites (virus in saliva) Contamination of broken skin Contamination of broken skin Aerosol in bat caves Aerosol in bat caves Corneal, liver, kidney transplant from infected donor Corneal, liver, kidney transplant from infected donor 1-2 human cases/year in U.S. most often bat-associated 1-2 human cases/year in U.S. most often bat-associated

27 Rabies Clinical Signs 75% humans ill < 90 days after bite wound 75% humans ill < 90 days after bite wound Nausea, vomiting, headache Nausea, vomiting, headache Tingling and pain on side of body where bite located Tingling and pain on side of body where bite located Furious and paralytic forms Furious and paralytic forms Cause of death usually respiratory failure during paralytic phase Cause of death usually respiratory failure during paralytic phase CDC Negri bodies – large pink inclusions in cytoplasm of brain cells – diagnose Rabies

28 Rabies Prevention Avoid close contact with wild animals exhibiting unusual behavior Avoid close contact with wild animals exhibiting unusual behavior Consider pre-exposure immunization if work is high-risk Consider pre-exposure immunization if work is high-risk Report animal bites immediately: post- exposure treatment should start within 24 hours Report animal bites immediately: post- exposure treatment should start within 24 hours

29 Hantavirus Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) Sin Nombre virus Sin Nombre virus Wildlife reservoir - Peromyscus maniculatus Wildlife reservoir - Peromyscus maniculatus CDC

30 Sin Nombre Incidence 2013

31 Sin Nombre Transmission Aerosol of deer mouse urine or feces Aerosol of deer mouse urine or feces Contaminated hands  mucous membranes Contaminated hands  mucous membranes Contaminated food Contaminated food Bite transmission rare Bite transmission rare 30-35% fatality rate 30-35% fatality rate

32 Incubation 9 to 33 days Incubation 9 to 33 days High fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, respiratory distress, cough High fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, respiratory distress, cough Sin Nombre Clinical Signs Early stage of disease Middle stage of disease CDC

33 Sin Nombre Prevention Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment –Gloves, coveralls, boots Work upwind of animals Work upwind of animals Work in the sun, if possible Work in the sun, if possible Wear a respirator Wear a respirator –Fit-test through Environmental Health & Risk Management

34 Plague Yersinia pestis Yersinia pestis Nonmotile, Gram – rod Nonmotile, Gram – rod “Black Death” “Black Death” 3 forms (mortality): 3 forms (mortality): –Bubonic –Septicemic (5-50%) –Pneumonic (20%) Gangrene of fingers – a complication of plague CDC

35 Plague > 200 species rodent reservoirs: prairie dogs, rats, marmots, hares, chipmunks, ground squirrels > 200 species rodent reservoirs: prairie dogs, rats, marmots, hares, chipmunks, ground squirrels Xenopsylla cheopis rat flea – regurgitates up to 20,000 plague bacteria from “blocked” gut Xenopsylla cheopis rat flea – regurgitates up to 20,000 plague bacteria from “blocked” gut Prairie Dog CDC

36 Plague in Animals Pin-point hemorrhage  petechiae Pin-point hemorrhage  petechiae Swollen lymph nodes Swollen lymph nodes Respiratory disease Respiratory disease Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC

37 Plague Transmission Bites of infected rodent fleas Bites of infected rodent fleas Entry into breaks in skin when handling infected rodents or rabbits; wild carnivores that eat infected prey Entry into breaks in skin when handling infected rodents or rabbits; wild carnivores that eat infected prey Domestic cats highly susceptible – aerosol or handling Domestic cats highly susceptible – aerosol or handling Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas

38 Plague Clinical Signs Illness 2-6 days after infection Illness 2-6 days after infection Swollen lymph gland, fever, chills, headache, extreme exhaustion Swollen lymph gland, fever, chills, headache, extreme exhaustion Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC

39 Plague Clinical Signs Cough, bloody sputum, increased heart rate, shock, DIC Cough, bloody sputum, increased heart rate, shock, DIC Gangrene of fingers and toes Gangrene of fingers and toes 1 month after finger amputation for gangrene CDC

40 Plague Prevention Prevent flea infestation Prevent flea infestation Handle wild rodents with appropriate PPE Handle wild rodents with appropriate PPE Do not handle wild rodents with petechial hemorrhages Do not handle wild rodents with petechial hemorrhages Four Corners area of the US high incidence Four Corners area of the US high incidence

41 Tularemia Francisella tularensis Francisella tularensis Aerobic, gram - coccobacillus Aerobic, gram - coccobacillus > 10 organisms > 10 organisms 1.4% fatality rate 1.4% fatality rate Arthropods in life cycle Arthropods in life cycle Rhipicephalus sanguineus “Brown dog tick” CDC

42 Tularemia Transmission Bites by infected arthropods Bites by infected arthropods –Ticks Handling infectious tissues Handling infectious tissues Contaminated food, water, soil Contaminated food, water, soil Inhalation of infective aerosols Inhalation of infective aerosols No human to human transmission No human to human transmission

43 Tularemia Clinical Signs Fever, headache, chills, body aches (low back), nasal discharge, sore throat Fever, headache, chills, body aches (low back), nasal discharge, sore throat Substernal pain, cough, anorexia, weight loss, weakness Substernal pain, cough, anorexia, weight loss, weakness CDC

44 Tularemia Prevention Personal protective equipment when skinning hares or rodents Personal protective equipment when skinning hares or rodents Check for ticks daily & remove Check for ticks daily & remove Use repellants if possible Use repellants if possible Wild hare – common culprit for disease transmission to hunters from bare-handed field skinning CDC

45 West Nile Virus Flavivirus Flavivirus Horses & humans  encephalitis Horses & humans  encephalitis Bird reservoirs: corvids Bird reservoirs: corvids Spread by mosquitoes Spread by mosquitoes Ochlerotatus japonicus CDC

46 WNV Clinical Signs Incubation 3-14 days Incubation 3-14 days 80% infected humans show no symptoms 80% infected humans show no symptoms 20% mild symptoms: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, rash 20% mild symptoms: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, rash 1 in 150 infected  severe disease (e.g., stupor, coma, convulsions, paralysis) 1 in 150 infected  severe disease (e.g., stupor, coma, convulsions, paralysis)

47 West Nile Virus in the U.S. As of December 3, 2013 Legend Positive Test Results No Positive Test Results Cumulative Total Entire Country: 2,318

48 West Nile Virus Prevention Long-sleeved shirts and long pants, when possible Long-sleeved shirts and long pants, when possible Bug Tamer ™ apparel (Shannon Outdoors, Inc) Bug Tamer ™ apparel (Shannon Outdoors, Inc) Mosquito repellant – DEET for skin Mosquito repellant – DEET for skin Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside Avoid areas of standing water Avoid areas of standing water

49 Q Fever Coxiella burnetti Coxiella burnetti Sheep, goats, cattle Sheep, goats, cattle 1 organism can cause disease 1 organism can cause disease Placental tissues Placental tissues Spread by Spread by –Aerosol –Hands CDC

50 Q Fever Clinical Signs 50% infected get ill in 2-3 weeks 50% infected get ill in 2-3 weeks 30-50% infected get pneumonia 30-50% infected get pneumonia Headache, malaise, muscle aches, confusion, GI signs, weight loss, hepatitis Headache, malaise, muscle aches, confusion, GI signs, weight loss, hepatitis 1-2% fatality rate 1-2% fatality rate Chronic infection  endocarditis Chronic infection  endocarditis 65% chronic cases end in death 65% chronic cases end in death

51 LCM Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 5% Mus musculus in US; wild mice; pet hamsters 5% Mus musculus in US; wild mice; pet hamsters Saliva, urine, feces of infected rodents Saliva, urine, feces of infected rodents Mucous membranes, broken skin, bites Mucous membranes, broken skin, bites Hamster Peromyscus sp.

52 LCM Clinical Signs Humans showing illness  signs 8-13 days post-infection Humans showing illness  signs 8-13 days post-infection Early: biphasic fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting Early: biphasic fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting Later: headache, stiff neck, confusion, neurological signs Later: headache, stiff neck, confusion, neurological signs Early pregnancy: abortion or fetal birth defects Early pregnancy: abortion or fetal birth defects Fatality rate < 1% Fatality rate < 1%


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