2Rod-Shaped Facultative Anaerobe Gram negative proteobacteria that causes Bubonic Plague
3TransmissionBubonic plague is a serious, life-threatening disease, which is transmitted to humans when they are bit by an infected rat flea and causes death quickly. There are more than 100 species of fleas that have been reported to naturally be infected with the plague. Y. pestis is mostly found in rats but have also been found in other wild animals such as prairie dogs.
4Global SignificanceThe World Health Organization reports 1-3,000 cases of plague each year. 1 in 7 people die from the disease. People under 20, especially men are more likely to get the plague.Researches have found that the plague causes more infections after warmer spring months and wetter summer months.
5The first known pandemic was in 542AD and lasted about 60 years The first known pandemic was in 542AD and lasted about 60 years. This outbreak killed millions of people and most of the deaths were located in people living along the Mediterranean Sea.The second pandemic was in the 14th century. This was believed to be the worst outbreak of plague. It was known as the Black Death. This pandemic was located in central Aisa and lasted for 400 years. Villages were demolished and about a third of the European population died.The third pandemic was in 1894 and started in China and reached Canton and Hong Kong. The plague started spreading throughout the world and killed millions.
6Bubonic PlagueBubonic Plague is an infection of the lymph nodes in the Lymphatic system which includes the tonsils, adenoids, spleen and thymus.Glands that swell are called buboes, which is how Bubonic Plague got it’s name. Buboes are found in the groin, armpit or neck and most often will occur close to the site of the initial infection and become red and swollen.
7Bubonic Plague is the most common. Transmitted from the bite of an infected flea or rodent.Symptoms usually occur within 3 to 7 days of exposure.Pain may occur before the actual swelling begins.If bacteria is left untreated it can spread into the bloodstream and symptoms of septicemic plague may begin.More symptoms include: chills, seizures and weakness.
8Septicemic Plague Infection in the blood. Transmission from a flea, rodent bite, or if bubonic plague is left untreated.Symptoms include fever, chills, abdominal pain, rapid heart rate, vomiting, delirium, shock, and bleeding into the skin or organs.Fingers, toes, and the nose may become gangrenous.Infection in the blood.Bacterium replicate in the bloodstream.It can spread to other organs including the liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs.
10Pneumonic Plague Person A Person B Pneumonic Plague is an infection of the lungs and is the most serious of the three plagues yet the least common. Yersinia pestis infects a person’s lungs and leads to pneumonia.Infection happens if a person inhales the plague bacteria from an infected person or animal and is highly contagious.Pneumonic Plague
11Symptoms usually occur 2 to 3 days after the exposure to the airborne particles of the bacteria. Death usually occurs within 2 to 6 days after symptoms begin.Early treatment of pneumonic plague is necessary to reduce the chances of death.About 10% of people with bubonic plague will get pneumonic plague.
12Diagnosing Plague Blood Urine Aspirates Sputum A diagnosis can be made from samples of blood, urine, sputum and aspirates of lymph nodes.Chest X-rays and antigen testing are done.BloodUrineSputumAspiratesUnder a microscope the bacillus will look like a safety pin.A doctor will rule out any other diseases that have similar symptoms such as Syphilis, Tularemia andShingellosis.Medical professional will listen to a person’s lungs and examine the skin.
13TreatmentTreatment for all three plagues is similar. A person who has bubonic or septicemic plague needs to be isolated and the local and state health departments need to be notified. If a patient has pneumonic plague they need to be isolated until sputum cultures come back showing no infection.Antibiotics need to be administered within 24 hours intravenously for at least 10 days. The most common antibiotic used to treat plague is Streptomycin. Streptomycin is given as follows: 30mg/kg/day IM in 2 divided doses for 10 days.Alternative antibiotics such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are also effective.
14PreventionAntibiotics are suggested for a person who has been in contact with a person infected with plague.People should avoid sick or dead animals and report such animals to a local health department.Treating pets (cats or dogs) for fleas on a regular basis.People who hunt should wear protective gloves when skinning animals.Antibiotics are suggested for any person who has been in contact with a person infected with plague or living within a household where plague has been an issue. People should avoid sick or dead animals and report these animals to a local health department. People who hunt should wear protective gloves when skinning animals. Also treat pets (cats or dogs) for fleas on a regular basis. If outdoors people should use appropriate insect repellents. People traveling to other countries where plague has happened should take extra precautions, such as avoiding places where large numbers of diseased rats have died. If a person is traveling to such an area they should apply an insect repellent containing DEET (a versatile repellent that is use worldwide and repels mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, biting flies and chiggers) to the legs and ankles and also clothing and outer bedding. There is currently no vaccine in the United States for the plague. The main way to prevent plague epidemics is to control and monitor the disease in rats and wild rodents.People traveling to areas where plague has been a problem should apply an insect repellent containing DEET ( a versatile repellent that is used worldwide and repels mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, biting fleas and chiggers.
15Ashes! Ashes! We all fall down! Ring around the rosy,Pocketful of posies,Ashes! Ashes! We all fall down!The words to the ring around the rosy children’s game have their origin in English history. The historical period dates back to the Great Plague of London in The symptoms of the plague included a rosy red rash in the shape of a ring on the skin (Ring around the rosy). Pockets and pouches were filled with sweet smelling herbs (or posies) which were carried due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells. The term “Ashes Ashes” refers to the cremation of the dead bodies!1665The words to the Ring around the rosy children's ring game have their origin in English history . The historical period dates back to the Great Plague of London in 1665 (bubonic plague) or even before when the first outbreak of the Plague hit England in the 1300's. The symptoms of the plague included a rosy red rash in the shape of a ring on the skin (Ring around the rosy). Pockets and pouches were filled with sweet smelling herbs ( or posies) which were carried due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells. The term "Ashes Ashes" refers to the cremation of the dead bodies! <iframe title="YouTube video player" width="640" height="390" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/KKI2gOawEPA" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>