Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Occupational Health for Wildlife Handlers M. A. Stevenson, DVM, PhD, DACVS Director and Attending Veterinarian The University of Montana-Missoula.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Occupational Health for Wildlife Handlers M. A. Stevenson, DVM, PhD, DACVS Director and Attending Veterinarian The University of Montana-Missoula."— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational Health for Wildlife Handlers M. A. Stevenson, DVM, PhD, DACVS Director and Attending Veterinarian The University of Montana-Missoula

2 Occupational Health Why now? Why now? –Mandatory for UM to maintain animal research program accreditation Why us? Why us? –Everyone listed on an AUP must and any one else interested may participate

3 Staying Safe Training Training Knowledge Knowledge Awareness Awareness Co-workers Co-workers

4 Basic Safety Principles Use appropriate PPE Use appropriate PPE –Gloves, coveralls, washable boots, eye protection, mask or respirator Good hygiene  especially hands Good hygiene  especially hands Protect human food and water Protect human food and water Proper use of sharps containers Proper use of sharps containers Communicate with your team Communicate with your team Please do not kiss the animals! Please do not kiss the animals!

5 Early Reporting of Injury Absolutely imperative to inform Absolutely imperative to inform –Direct Supervisor –Principal Investigator –Co-workers when in remote field areas Any unusual symptoms  seek medical help immediately Any unusual symptoms  seek medical help immediately Best defense is a good offense  Provide a complete history to assist physicians Best defense is a good offense  Provide a complete history to assist physicians

6 Rabies Rhabdovirus Rhabdovirus Fatal if no treatment or vaccine protection Fatal if no treatment or vaccine protection Infects all warm- blooded mammals Infects all warm- blooded mammals Sylvatic rabies  wildlife in life cycle Sylvatic rabies  wildlife in life cycle Ole Yeller Ole Yeller Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC “Mad” Rabies

7 Rabies “Dumb” rabies “Dumb” rabies Wildlife Wildlife –Lose fear of humans –Unusually “friendly” –Uncharacteristic places –Uncharacteristic times of day –Neurological signs –Photo credits - CDC Rabid fox

8 Rabies Wildlife reservoirs in US in 2001 Wildlife reservoirs in US in 2001 –Raccoons (38%) –Skunks (30%) –Bats (17%) –Foxes (6%) –Photo credits - CDC Silver-haired bat

9 Rabies Incidence in U.S.

10 Rabies Transmission Animal bites (virus in saliva) Animal bites (virus in saliva) Contamination of broken skin Contamination of broken skin Aerosol in bat caves Aerosol in bat caves Corneal, liver, kidney transplant from infected donor Corneal, liver, kidney transplant from infected donor 1-2 human cases/year in U.S. most often bat-associated 1-2 human cases/year in U.S. most often bat-associated

11 Rabies Clinical Signs 75% humans ill < 90 days after bite wound 75% humans ill < 90 days after bite wound Nausea, vomiting, headache Nausea, vomiting, headache Tingling and pain on side of body where bite located Tingling and pain on side of body where bite located Furious and paralytic forms Furious and paralytic forms Cause of death usually respiratory failure during paralytic phase Cause of death usually respiratory failure during paralytic phase CDC Negri bodies – large pink inclusions in cytoplasm of brain cells – diagnose Rabies

12 Rabies Prevention Avoid close contact with wild animals exhibiting unusual behavior Avoid close contact with wild animals exhibiting unusual behavior Consider pre-exposure immunization if work is high-risk Consider pre-exposure immunization if work is high-risk Report animal bites immediately: post- exposure treatment should start within 24 hours Report animal bites immediately: post- exposure treatment should start within 24 hours

13 Hantavirus Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) Sin Nombre virus Sin Nombre virus Wildlife reservoir - Peromyscus maniculatus Wildlife reservoir - Peromyscus maniculatus CDC

14 Sin Nombre Incidence in U.S.

15 Sin Nombre Transmission Aerosol of deer mouse urine or feces Aerosol of deer mouse urine or feces Contaminated hands  mucous membranes Contaminated hands  mucous membranes Contaminated food Contaminated food Bite transmission rare Bite transmission rare 30-35% fatality rate 30-35% fatality rate

16 Incubation 9 to 33 days Incubation 9 to 33 days High fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, respiratory distress, cough High fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, respiratory distress, cough Sin Nombre Clinical Signs Early stage of disease Middle stage of disease CDC

17 Sin Nombre Prevention Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment –Gloves, coveralls, boots Work upwind of animals Work upwind of animals Work in the sun, if possible Work in the sun, if possible Wear a respirator Wear a respirator –Fit-test through Environmental Health & Risk Management

18 Plague Yersinia pestis Yersinia pestis Nonmotile, Gram – rod Nonmotile, Gram – rod “Black Death” “Black Death” 3 forms (mortality): 3 forms (mortality): –Bubonic –Septicemic (5-50%) –Pneumonic (20%) Gangrene of fingers – a complication of plague CDC

19 Plague > 200 species rodent reservoirs: prairie dogs, rats, marmots, hares, chipmunks, ground squirrels > 200 species rodent reservoirs: prairie dogs, rats, marmots, hares, chipmunks, ground squirrels Xenopsylla cheopis rat flea – regurgitates up to 20,000 plague bacteria from “blocked” gut Xenopsylla cheopis rat flea – regurgitates up to 20,000 plague bacteria from “blocked” gut Prairie Dog CDC

20 Plague in Animals Pin-point hemorrhage  petechiae Pin-point hemorrhage  petechiae Swollen lymph nodes Swollen lymph nodes Respiratory disease Respiratory disease Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC

21 Plague Transmission Bites of infected rodent fleas Bites of infected rodent fleas Entry into breaks in skin when handling infected rodents or rabbits; wild carnivores that eat infected prey Entry into breaks in skin when handling infected rodents or rabbits; wild carnivores that eat infected prey Domestic cats highly susceptible – aerosol or handling Domestic cats highly susceptible – aerosol or handling Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas

22 Plague Clinical Signs Illness 2-6 days after infection Illness 2-6 days after infection Swollen lymph gland, fever, chills, headache, extreme exhaustion Swollen lymph gland, fever, chills, headache, extreme exhaustion Photo credits - CDC Photo credits - CDC

23 Plague Clinical Signs Cough, bloody sputum, increased heart rate, shock, DIC Cough, bloody sputum, increased heart rate, shock, DIC Gangrene of fingers and toes Gangrene of fingers and toes 1 month after finger amputation for gangrene CDC

24 Plague Prevention Prevent flea infestation Prevent flea infestation Handle wild rodents with appropriate PPE Handle wild rodents with appropriate PPE Do not handle wild rodents with petechial hemorrhages Do not handle wild rodents with petechial hemorrhages Four Corners area of the US high incidence Four Corners area of the US high incidence

25 Tularemia Francisella tularensis Francisella tularensis Aerobic, gram - coccobacillus Aerobic, gram - coccobacillus > 10 organisms > 10 organisms 1.4% fatality rate 1.4% fatality rate Arthropods in life cycle Arthropods in life cycle Rhipicephalus sanguineus “Brown dog tick” CDC

26 Tularemia Transmission Bites by infected arthropods Bites by infected arthropods –Ticks Handling infectious tissues Handling infectious tissues Contaminated food, water, soil Contaminated food, water, soil Inhalation of infective aerosols Inhalation of infective aerosols No human to human transmission No human to human transmission

27 Tularemia Clinical Signs Fever, headache, chills, body aches (low back), nasal discharge, sore throat Fever, headache, chills, body aches (low back), nasal discharge, sore throat Substernal pain, cough, anorexia, weight loss, weakness Substernal pain, cough, anorexia, weight loss, weakness CDC

28 Tularemia Prevention Personal protective equipment when skinning hares or rodents Personal protective equipment when skinning hares or rodents Check for ticks daily & remove Check for ticks daily & remove Use repellants if possible Use repellants if possible Wild hare – common culprit for disease transmission to hunters from bare-handed field skinning CDC

29 West Nile Virus Flavivirus Flavivirus in US in US Horses & humans  encephalitis Horses & humans  encephalitis Bird reservoirs: corvids Bird reservoirs: corvids Spread by mosquitoes Spread by mosquitoes Ochlerotatus japonicus CDC

30 WNV Clinical Signs Incubation 3-14 days Incubation 3-14 days 80% infected humans show no symptoms 80% infected humans show no symptoms 20% mild symptoms: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, rash 20% mild symptoms: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, rash 1 in 150 infected  severe disease (e.g., stupor, coma, convulsions, paralysis) 1 in 150 infected  severe disease (e.g., stupor, coma, convulsions, paralysis)

31 West Nile Virus in the U.S.

32 West Nile Virus Prevention Long-sleeved shirts and long pants, when possible Long-sleeved shirts and long pants, when possible Bug Tamer ™ apparel (Shannon Outdoors, Inc) Bug Tamer ™ apparel (Shannon Outdoors, Inc) Mosquito repellant – DEET for skin Mosquito repellant – DEET for skin Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside Avoid areas of standing water Avoid areas of standing water cout.html cout.html cout.html cout.html

33 Q Fever Coxiella burnetti Coxiella burnetti Sheep, goats, cattle Sheep, goats, cattle 1 organism can cause disease 1 organism can cause disease Placental tissues Placental tissues Spread by Spread by –Aerosol –Hands CDC

34 Q Fever Clinical Signs 50% infected get ill in 2-3 weeks 50% infected get ill in 2-3 weeks 30-50% infected get pneumonia 30-50% infected get pneumonia Headache, malaise, muscle aches, confusion, GI signs, weight loss, hepatitis Headache, malaise, muscle aches, confusion, GI signs, weight loss, hepatitis 1-2% fatality rate 1-2% fatality rate Chronic infection  endocarditis Chronic infection  endocarditis 65% chronic cases end in death 65% chronic cases end in death

35 LCM Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 5% Mus musculus in US; wild mice; pet hamsters 5% Mus musculus in US; wild mice; pet hamsters Saliva, urine, feces of infected rodents Saliva, urine, feces of infected rodents Mucous membranes, broken skin, bites Mucous membranes, broken skin, bites Hamster Peromyscus sp.

36 LCM Clinical Signs Humans showing illness  signs 8-13 days post-infection Humans showing illness  signs 8-13 days post-infection Early: biphasic fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting Early: biphasic fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting Later: headache, stiff neck, confusion, neurological signs Later: headache, stiff neck, confusion, neurological signs Early pregnancy: abortion or fetal birth defects Early pregnancy: abortion or fetal birth defects Fatality rate < 1% Fatality rate < 1%

37 The University of Montana-Missoula Occupational Health and Safety Program Participant Capture Employee/Animal User IACUC reviews AUP Visitor Annual Training Sessions “Right to Know” Risk Assessment by OH&S Physician (questionnaire review, facility assessment, novel project assessment, feedback to IACUC) RSC IACUC Coordinator IBC Medical surveillance warranted Procedures/policies to minimize risk Annual Policy Reminder to Dept. Chairs & PIs IACUC No medical surveillance warranted Annual Medical Surveillance IACUC OH&S Physician Capture Mechanisms Flow of participants Administrative flow

38 IACUC OH&S Physician UM Administration Flow of participants Administrative flow Individual risk assessment reviewed by OH&S Physician IACUC Coordinator Medical surveillance not warranted ( notification) Medical surveillance warranted OH&S Physician Further Evaluation Cleared without Restrictions ( notification) Annual Medical Surveillance Serious health problem or direct threat (Letter notification) HR Director consultation if employment impacted Respirator necessary Fit-test UM EH&RM Dept. Cleared with Restrictions (Letter notification) Occupational Health and Safety Program Participant Medical Review


Download ppt "Occupational Health for Wildlife Handlers M. A. Stevenson, DVM, PhD, DACVS Director and Attending Veterinarian The University of Montana-Missoula."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google