Presentation on theme: "Introduction A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”. A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or reverse."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”. A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or reverse pass. The technique tells you “how” a pass was made. In your jotter write down a skill from the following activities and three different techniques. Explain why you would use each different technique.
Easy and Complex Skills One of these skills is easier to perform. A back flip is more difficult (complex) than balancing on one leg (easy). In all activities you will find easy and complex skills. In your jotter write down 5 different activities and give an example of a complex and easy skill from each activity. Easy SkillsComplex Skills Few judgements to be madeMany judgements UndemandingDemanding Little co-ordination neededCo-ordination vital Simple movementsComplicated movements Easy environment (no opposition)Difficult environment
Complex skills Decision making and coordination are essential to complex skills. In your jotter write down an individual activity, a skill or technique from that activity and explain the importance of coordination in the chosen skill/technique. An example has been given for you. Activity – Gymnastics Skill/Technique – Cartwheel During the cartwheel the arms and legs must be perfectly coordinated to achieve the correct timing of hands touching the ground then legs within the skill. In your jotter write down a team activity, a skill or technique from that activity and Explain the importance of decision making in the chosen skill/technique. Activity – HockeySkill/Technique – Reverse Pass When using the reverse pass the player has very little time to decide when and who to pass to. Making decisions quickly is a trait of skilful players.
Breaking Down Skills A performance of a skill can be broken down into 3 parts. Preparation, Action and Recovery. E.g, Preparation – Toss the ball into the air, and pull the racket back. Action – Lift up and throw the face of the racket to make contact with the ball. (Throwing action) Recovery - Follow through in the direction you wish the ball to travel In your jotter select 4 different activities and a skill/technique from each. Describe in detail the preparation, action and recovery for each one.
Gradual Build Up Gradual Build Up is a way of learning a skill progressively – “bit by bit”. Each part of the skill is introduced and mastered before another new part of the skill is introduced. Gradual Build Up is used to learn new skills which might be dangerous or too Complex for a beginner. E.g. Begin by attempting sitting dives from pool side. Crouched dives from pool side. Standing dives from pool side. As technique improves divers may continue to increase height. In your jotter write down 2 more skills which you may learn using gradual build up, for each skill write down at least 3 stages of learning.
Whole-Part-Whole Learning or developing skills using the whole-part-whole method involves practising the whole skill and then practice a part of it before putting it back into the whole skill again. Whole-part-whole is used to isolate and practice parts of a skill which are proving difficult to master, by breaking down the skill into parts it can make it easier to master. Activity – SwimmingSkill/Technique – Backstroke Practise the whole stroke Using a float practise “legs only” Swim the full stoke again, noting any improvement In your jotter write down an activity and a skill/technique. Describe the part of the skill which you found difficult to master. Explain how this affected the whole skill. Describe a practice you used to improve the problem part.
Learning Skills Skills can be learned and practised using pressure dills, conditioned games, small sided games and co-operative practice. Pressure can break skills down in a game situation. Practising under pressure will benefit overall performance. In your jotter select an activity, skill and describe a pressure drill used to practise the skill. You may use a diagram to explain. Placing conditions on performers during practise can help to improve skills in the overall game. E.g. During a passing practise in Football players are only allowed one touch. In your jotter write down another example of a conditioned practise/game. Explain how this will effect the overall performance.
Learning Skills In your jotter describe a practice where you co-operated with others. Explain how this practice helped your overall performance. In your jotter give 3 reasons why small sided games are used to practice skills. Many practises allow performers to work on skills and an aspect of fitness together. E.g. A gymnast who spends 30 minutes practising the splits, is simultaneously working on their suppleness. In your jotter write down another example using a different activity, skill and aspect of fitness. Give one reason why people practice skills and an aspect of fitness simultaneously.
Internal/External Feedback Feedback is information you receive on your performance. There are 2 main types of feedback INTERNAL and EXTERNAL. Internal feedback is sometimes called “kinaesthetic”. The feedback comes from within the performer, this type lets the performer “feel” the movements. In your jotter chose an activity and a skill/technique where you received internal feedback. How did the feedback effect the rest of the performance. External feedback is feedback given from another. There are 3 main types: WrittenVerbal Visual In your jotter describe 3 occasions where you have received the above feedback.
Feedback + Demonstrations Feedback can be useful when learning new skills/techniques. Feedback should be given directly after the performer completes the skill/technique. In your jotter explain why. When giving feedback it is important that the right amount is given to the performer. Too much feedback is as unhelpful as too little. In your jotter explain why. Demonstrations can be given by the teacher, class mate or a video. They allow you to see the skill before you attempt it.
Automatic Skills Golf players will practise the same shot many times trying to make the shot automatic. Once a skill is automatic the benefits are that: The performer does not need to think about what needs to be done to execute the skill. The success rate will be high. The performer can concentrate on other things. E.g. the next move. In your jotter write down 2 problems which a performer might face when practising a skill for too long. In your jotter write down 2 ways which this can be avoided.
Centre of Gravity The centre of gravity for a human is located around the area of the naval. In many activities performers need to be maintain a static centre of gravity to remain stable. E.g. Activity – GymnasticsSkill - Handstand In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill from each where the performer must maintain a static centre of gravity. In other activities the centre of gravity is dynamic (always Moving). E.g. Activity – Ice SkatingSkill - Jumps In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill From each where the performer must have a dynamic centre of gravity.
Centre of Gravity Performers can make themselves more stable in 5 ways. The lower your centre of gravity the more stable you will be. The larger the area of your base the more stable you will be The heavier you are the more stable you are. The closer your COG is to the centre of your base the more stable you will be. Explain why stability is needed in each of the following activities. The more you lean into an oncoming force the more stable you will be.
Transfer of Weight Many activities involve a transfer of weight from the back foot to the front. A transfer of weight in this direction adds more force, speed and distance into the movement. A long backward motion and follow through increases this. Basketball players will transfer weight from their back foot to the front when they chest pass. This transfer of weight adds speed to the pass. In your jotter select any activity and passing as the skill, you may use Basketball. Explain in detail why fast passing may be required in a game. The striking and fielding games require a transfer of weight from the back to front foot. In your jotter, in detail explain why.
Transfer of Weight In your jotter, describe in detail the transfer of weight which occurs during this performance. In your jotter select a skill/technique from this activity. Describe how improving the weight transfer would improve the performance. During a vault weight is transferred from the feet to the hands and then back to the feet. In your jotter write down another activity and skill which has a similar transfer of weight.
Levers - Equipment Many activities require long or short levers. One example of a long lever is and one example of a short lever is Long levers are used to gain speed and distance. the longer the lever the greater the distance and speed of the lever at the end. Longer levers are more difficult to control. Short levers are easier to control, and can be used to teach skills to beginners. In your jotter write down 2 examples of a long lever and 2 examples of a short lever. Select one example from each and describe how the lever was used for effective performance.
Levers Parts of the human body can be used to act as long levers. E.g. During a game of volleyball to serve and spike the arm can be used as a lever. Straightening the arm to make a long lever adds distance and speed. When the ball is played with speed it is difficult to return, players use this skill to try and win points and the game. In your jotter select another example of a skill when a part of the body is used to make a long lever. Describe how you used this lever when performing the skill. Describe the actions you took to maintain control when using the long lever.
Friction In many activities friction can be an advantage, E.g. A footballer will wear studs to increase the friction between his boots and the ground, this will allow him to apply maximum force when turning or running. In your jotter write down 2 more examples of friction helping performance. In many activities friction can be a disadvantage, E.g. A speed skater will ensure that the blades of their skates are as smooth and sharp as possible. Friction occurring between ice and skate will slow the competitor down. In your jotter write down 2 more examples where friction could be a disadvantage.
Resistance Resistance is a force that slows down or opposes another force. Both air and water create resistance for athletes and competitors. In your jotter select an activity where water is a resistance and why. In your jotter select an activity where wind/air is a resistance and why. Competitors try to gain vital second in races by reducing air and water resistance. One way to do this is by changing body shape. A STREAMLINED body shape will encounter less resistance and therefore travel faster. In you jotter explain how a cyclist can make their body shape more streamlined. In your jotter explain how a swimmer can make their body shape more streamlined.
Resistance Changing shape during a rotation will alter the speed of the skill. In your jotter write down how this skill could be performed faster. As well as changing shape to reduce DRAG and resistance, competitors will use other means to cut down air and water resistance. E.g The Helmet. In your jotter write down 2 different pieces of Equipment/clothing used by competitors to reduce resistance.
Force In many activities you use force to overcome resistance. the sprinter uses the staring blocks to push back against and travel forwards. If the blocks slipped the sprinter could not apply the same force. In your jotter write down the activities below, the direction of the force and the direction of the movement. In your jotter explain how resistance can be an advantage in an activity by allowing a performer to create a force.
Force Force is used to overcome resistance. A swimmer uses the force from their arms legs to overcome the resistance of the water. In your jotter write down another example of a competitor who uses force to overcome a resistance.