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STABILITY AND BALANCE “Define and apply the principle of balance to a selected sport in relation to: – The centre of gravity i.e. Line of gravity, width.

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Presentation on theme: "STABILITY AND BALANCE “Define and apply the principle of balance to a selected sport in relation to: – The centre of gravity i.e. Line of gravity, width."— Presentation transcript:

1 STABILITY AND BALANCE “Define and apply the principle of balance to a selected sport in relation to: – The centre of gravity i.e. Line of gravity, width of base of support, height of centre of gravity – Static balance – Dynamic balance “Define and apply the principle of balance to a selected sport in relation to: – The centre of gravity i.e. Line of gravity, width of base of support, height of centre of gravity – Static balance – Dynamic balance www.flickr.com/photos/keithallison/4062226811/ 1 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home Curriculum Council of Western Australia. Physical Education Studies Support Document 2009.

2 BALANCE BALANCE : The ability to neutralise forces that disturb equilibrium. – Standing on one leg – Scooping a ball up on the run – “Bouncing” off a tackler without falling 2©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

3 STABILITY Object’s resistance to movement, from a balanced position. There are two types of stability: 1.STATIC STABILITY— when an object is at rest and not moving with linear or angular motion. 2.DYNAMIC STABILITY— when an object is in motion and moving with linear or angular motion. www.flickr.com/photos/lcrward/2662994322/ 3©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

4 CENTRE OF GRAVITY The point around which a body’s weight is equally balanced in all directions Also referred to as the center of mass (need not be physically located inside of a body) Standing still – centre of gravity is located in the abdominal cavity, about 6 inches above the pubis symphysis. As your position changes – so does your centre of gravity. The position of the centre of gravity will determine whether the body is in balance. COG 4©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

5 DETERMINING THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY To determine ones COG, simply draw a box around the objects outer extremities Then draw diagonal lines through the box, with the point of intersection determining the objects approximate COG. To determine ones COG, simply draw a box around the objects outer extremities Then draw diagonal lines through the box, with the point of intersection determining the objects approximate COG. www.flickr.com/photos/dearlydeparted/3834132754/ 5 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home Approximate COG

6 In sports like High Jump and Pole Vault, where athletes are trying to attain maximum height, individuals will endeavour to position their COG outside of their body, having it pass beneath the bar whilst their body passes above it, to help achieve maximum height. – They achieve this by arching their back (hyperextension) In sports like High Jump and Pole Vault, where athletes are trying to attain maximum height, individuals will endeavour to position their COG outside of their body, having it pass beneath the bar whilst their body passes above it, to help achieve maximum height. – They achieve this by arching their back (hyperextension) ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS 6 CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND SPORT www.flickr.com/photos/philmcelhinney/452585754/ Home COG passes through or beneath the bar whilst the athlete passes over the bar

7 BASE OF SUPPORT What is the base of support? Area bound by the outermost regions of contact between a body and support surface 7 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

8 1.MASS OF THE OBJECT The greater the mass of an object, the greater its stability will be, given that all other factors are equal. 1.MASS OF THE OBJECT The greater the mass of an object, the greater its stability will be, given that all other factors are equal. FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY Sumo wrestlers have excellent stability as a result of their increased mass www.flickr.com/photos/wilhelmja/378453316/ 8 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

9 2.SIZE OF THE OBJECTS BASE OF SUPPORT The greater the area of support, the greater the degree of stability. 2.SIZE OF THE OBJECTS BASE OF SUPPORT The greater the area of support, the greater the degree of stability. FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY 9©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

10 FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY Low COG = ↑ stability High COG = ↓ stability 10 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home 3.THE HEIGHT OF THE COG ABOVE THE BASE OF SUPPORT The line of gravity or pull of gravity will always pass vertically through the centre of an object’s mass. The higher the centre of gravity above the base of support, the less stable the object is. Athletes often lower their centre of gravity by bending the knees in order to increase their stability 3.THE HEIGHT OF THE COG ABOVE THE BASE OF SUPPORT The line of gravity or pull of gravity will always pass vertically through the centre of an object’s mass. The higher the centre of gravity above the base of support, the less stable the object is. Athletes often lower their centre of gravity by bending the knees in order to increase their stability

11 4.THE POSITION OF THE LINE OF GRAVITY RELATIVE TO THE BASE OF SUPPORT The line of gravity is an imaginary vertical line passing downwards through the centre of gravity. The closer the line of gravity is to the limits of the base of support, the less the degree of stability of the object. Movement is easier when the line of gravity falls outside the object’s base of support 4.THE POSITION OF THE LINE OF GRAVITY RELATIVE TO THE BASE OF SUPPORT The line of gravity is an imaginary vertical line passing downwards through the centre of gravity. The closer the line of gravity is to the limits of the base of support, the less the degree of stability of the object. Movement is easier when the line of gravity falls outside the object’s base of support FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY ↑ Stability as line of gravity located well within base of support 11©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

12 5.INCREASING THE SIZE OF THE BASE OF SUPPORT IN THE DIRECTION OF THE ONCOMING FORCE FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY Oncoming force 12 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

13 6.HORIZONTALLY POSITIONING THE COG NEAR THE EDGE OF THE BASE OF SUPPORT ON THE SIDE OF THE EXTERNAL FORCE FACTORS AFFECTING BALANCE & STABILITY Oncoming force 13 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

14 More stable Less stable Low COG Higher COG Wide base of support – 4 point contact Small base of support – 2 point contact Line of gravity in middle of support Similar line of gravity Low COG Higher COG Wide base of support – 4 point contact Small base of support – 2 point contact Line of gravity in middle of support Similar line of gravity STABILITY VARIES WITH BODY POSITION 14©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

15 Centre of Gravity, Stability & Balance In many sports skills, players are required to unbalance quickly in order to have a fast movement time. This can be done by either; – Decreasing the size of the effective base and/or – Displacing the centre of weight quickly outside the effective base (move the line of gravity close to the base of support) Line of gravity passes close to edge of base of support, reducing stability allowing the runner to get out of the blocks faster 15 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

16 E.g. When receiving service a tennis player has to be prepared to move quickly in a sideways direction. In order to respond to a wide serve the player sways form side to side keeping the centre of weight in motion across the base of support. With the centre of weight in motion, less effort is required to unbalance the player when the decision to move in a particular direction is made. At the last moment players will also be seen to bring their feet closer together thereby decreasing the size of the effective base and facilitating an unbalancing effect. COG, STABILITY AND BALANCE www.flickr.com/photos/stuseeger/2419626533/ www.flickr.com/photos/15740359@N06/2736645585/ 16 ©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home

17 Sports Requiring Low Stability Sprint starts – swimming and athletics Tennis – service reception Any aspect of sport requiring quick lateral movement or change of direction Sprint starts – swimming and athletics Tennis – service reception Any aspect of sport requiring quick lateral movement or change of direction Sports Requiring High Stability Wrestling Weight lifting Collision sports Wrestling Weight lifting Collision sports 17©PE STUDIES REVISION SEMINARS Home COG, STABILITY AND BALANCE


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