4SkillsSkills should be carried out with maximum efficiency and performed with minimum effort.A skilful performer is one who can control physical movement and can anticipate what is going to happen next as different skills and techniques are completed.1) Write down some major skills and techniques involved in the activities in your course.2) Write down a sports person that you think is the best in the world in their activity. Explain why you think they are so skilful.
5Simple Skills EASY/SIMPLE SKILLS Few Sub-routines Physically UndemandingLittle co-ordinationneededFew judgmentsto be madeSimple order ofmovementsOne movement at atimeEasy Environment e.g.Indoorse.g.Set Shot
6Simple Skills HIGH SERVE CHEST PASS PUSH PASS SET SHOT SIMPLE SKILLS HEADINGHEAD-STAND
7Complex Skills e.g. Lay-up in Basketball Physically Demanding Many Sub-routinesPhysicallyDemandingCo-ordination isvitalMany judgementsto be madeMany movements atthe same timee.g.Lay-up inBasketball
8Complex Skills High jump Butterfly stroke Basketball lay-up Volley Goal Keeper save
9Effects of Skills & Techniques on Performance Simple skills are made up of physical actions which are common to many activities such as kicking, jumping, striking, throwing, stretching and rotating. You learn these basic skills (moves) as you develop.Your skill level will affect how well you can refine skills through practice, use skills at the correct time, and make decisions about when to use basic and complex skills.
10Effects of Skills & Techniques on Performance (EXAMPLE) When drawn to the net in badminton, a basic skill is to return the shuttle high to back of the opponent’s court with an underarm clear.A complex skill would be a tight net shot.Choose one skill from one activity. Explain how you refined the skill through practice.
11What makes a skilled performance? A skilled performance shows three characteristics:Sequences of movements are carried out in a fluent, controlled way often with minimum effortCorrect options are selectedSkills & techniques are used which reflect the performer’s ability and experience
12Skill Learning Learning skills involves considering: Safe practice Methods of practiceHow best to practise with a partner and in a group
13Safe PracticeThis involves ensuring practice is at the right level for your ability and completing a warm up before practice and a cool down after practice. It also involves understanding and abiding by the safety rules.E.g. Swimming* Class rules set by the teacher* Swimming pool rules* Working co-operatively with your partner or class
14Learning Skills Learning Skills Gradual Build Up is when you learn a skill bit by bite.g. Diving1. Seated Dive2. Kneeling Dive3. Crouched Dive4. Full DiveWhole Part Wholeiswhen you try the wholeskill, then, break it downand concentrate on part,before putting it all togetheragainRepetition DrillsShadowingis when youshadow your partner andcopy what they are doing.e.g. Movements inBadmintonSolo/Partner/GroupConditionedGames
15Methods of PracticeThere are four main methods of practice that you need to know for physical education:GRADUAL BUILD UPWHOLE PART WHOLEPASSIVE/ACTIVE PRACTICESREPETIITIVE PRACTICES
16Gradual Build UpGradual build up is a useful practice method for learning complex skills. You learn the skill bit by bit. You build the skill up in stages. Often used when the skill is too difficult or dangerous to try.Gradual build up is a useful practice method as it allows you to:Make practices more demanding in small stepsDevelop confidenceMake practices challenging but achievableGear practices to your stage of learning
17Gradual Build UpThe best example for using the gradual build up method for an individual activity is the flight dive.Describe three different stages of building up to a flight dive in swimming
18Gradual Build UpGradual build up practice method can also be used in team activities.E.g. Stage 1: In indoor hockey you are working on attack. 4 v 1. The object of the practice is to get past the defender.You must describe how you would gradually build up this practice to make it more challenging.
19Whole Part WholeWhole part whole is often used by performers who already have some experience of the activity. It works best when you can perform a version of the whole skill already.E.g. Front Crawl - SwimmingWhole: Try the whole stroke i.e. using both arms and legsPart: With a float in hands, practise legs only to improve leg kickWhole: Return to the whole stroke again to see if stroke has improved.
20PASSIVE/ACTIVE PRACTICES These are often useful to practise with a partner as they can vary the degree of opposition required to help you improve. E.g. Basketball – lay up shot1. Solo practice ensuring foot pattern and ball placement is correct.2. With a partner – receive pass from partner and perform lay-up shot.3. Partner passes and then uses passive defence to mark you4. Partner passes and then becomes an active defender who is trying to get ball.
22Learning Skills Tasks1. Choose one method of practice from list A and one from list B. Explain why you would use these methods of practice.(4)List A List BShadow practice Passive/Active PracticeWhole-part-whole Small sided gamesCooperative practice Repetitive Practices2. Choose two activities and describe, in detail, how you used these methods of practice to develop a skill. (Give specific details of a practice that you have used). (4)
23Learning Skills Tasks3. Gradual build up is one method of learning and developing skills.i) What is meant by gradual build up? /2ii) Explain why you would use this method /24. Select two different skills where you used gradual build up. Choose an individual activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.Firstly I, /1 Then I, /1 Finally I, /15. Choose a Team activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.
24Learning Skills Exam Questions Whole – part – whole and gradual build-up are two different methods of learning and developing skills. Explain why you used each method. (2)x2Choose an activity. Choose a skill/technique that could be improved using whole/part/whole. Describe what you did to improve this skill/technique using whole/part/whole. (2)ii) Now choose a different method of developing skills. (1)iii) Describe how you used this method to improve a skill/technique in an activity of your choice. (2)iv) Why was this an appropriate way to develop this skill/technique. (1)
25Movement AnalysisOne effective approach for breaking down a skill or technique is through analysing your:Preparation is the first part of the movementAction is the middle part of the movementRecovery is the end of the movementYou would use an observation schedule to achieve this
26FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisAn observation schedule would be used to analyse your performance. E.g. Overhead ClearPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MY PERFORMANCEPreparation Starts from base. Performer tracks path of shuttle and begins moving towards place shuttle will be played from. While moving, body turns side-on to net. Racquet is taken up and back behind head. Weight shifts mostly onto back foot. Back shoulder drops. Front arm balances racquet arm (both arms are raised).√
27FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MYPERFORMANCEAction Shoulder, arm and racquet are brought forward at speed to help generate power. Action resembles throwing action. Weight is transferred forward from back foot to front foot to coincide with moment of impact. Impact is with open racquet face above racquet shoulder. Performer strikes ‘through’ shuttle and body weight continues to move forward (a smooth continuous action leads naturally into recovery).√
28FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MYPERFORMANCERecovery Racquet comes down and across body in recovery phase. Forward movement at end of stroke leads to ‘base’ and recovery of ‘ready’ position.√
29Movement Analysis Benefits of Using an Observation Schedule Identifies Strengths & Weaknesses of a skillPinpoints specifically where weakness liesPractice programme can be designed from the information receivedYou can use an observation schedule at the beginning and end of a training block to see if your technique has improved
30Stages of LearningThere are three important stages in learning and developing skills:Planning Stage (Cognitive)Practice Stage (Associative)Automatic Stage (Autonomous)
31Planning StageDuring the planning stage, you find out what the skill involves. You establish what the parts of the skill are and make your first attempts at learning each part. Errors are likely to be common at this stage in learning.
32Practice StageDuring the practice stage you link together all the required subroutines of the skill. Simple skills will require less practice than complex skills. Quality practice will reduce the number of mistakes made during performance.
33Automatic StageAt this stage, most key subroutines have become automatic in the performance. At the automatic stage errors are less likely. You will be able to do it without thinking. Your success rate with an ‘automatic’ skill will be high and your mind will be free to concentrate on other aspects of the game.Choose one skill from an activity from the course. Explain, in detail, the characteristics of performance at each stage of skill learning.
34Overcoming Problems in Skill Learning Identify your performance strengths and weaknessesCompare with a classmate’s abilityCompare with a model performerHighlights fitness needs of performanceExact requirements of different skillsEffectiveness of decision makingHighlights specific practice to overcome skill weaknesses
35Principles of Effective Practice For your practice to be effective you should set clear objectives. This will enable you to refine performance. You must consider your existing level of ability and current strengths and weaknesses and what aspects of your performance you want to improve. You must also consider:Work/Rest RatioProgression
36Principles of Effective Practice WORK/RESTRATIOPREVIOUSEXPERIENCE INTHAT ACTIVITYYOUR LEVEL OFPRACTICALABILITYDIFFICULTYOF THE SKILLINVOLVEDPHYSICALDEMANDS OFTHE PRACTICEWORK/REST RATIOISONE OF THE KEY ISSUESIN MAKING SKILLTRAININGSPECIFICTOYOUR NEEDS
37Principles of Effective Practice PRACTICES ARELINKED TOYOUR CURRENTPERFORMANCE LEVELPROGRESSIONMAKE PRACTICESMORE CHALLENGINGWHEN YOU AREREADYWORK AT ASUITABLYDEMANDING LEVELAT ALL TIMESHIGH QUALITYPRACTICEFOR ASHORT PERIODOF TIMEWILLENSURE THAT YOURPERFORMANCE DOESNOT SUFFER FROM THEEFFECTS OFBOREDOMANDFATIGUE
38Principles of Effective Practice Practising Under PressureWith skills and techniques that you can complete with a high degree of control and fluency it is important to complete practice under pressure i.e. as you improve practices must become more challenging. This will make practice relate to performing in competition.In team activities this could involve increasing the demands of opponents.
39FeedbackFeedback is information received by a performer about their performance.Positive feedback helps your performance improvementEffective feedback needs to be positiveFeedback needs to be precise and accurateOne or two points of feedback given at a timeFeedback should be given as soon as possible after performance
40Feedback FEEDBACK INTERNAL Is how you feel about your own performance. E.g.You took a shot that wasunsuccessful because the ball hit the front ofthe ring. You would know that next timeyou shoot you would have to shoot with morepower.
41Feedback Exam Questions Choose an activity and a skill/technique. Select one type of feedback which helped you identify a problem. Describe how this feedback helped you to identify a problem. (2)ii) For the same skill choose a different type of feedback. Describe how this feedback helped you to identify a problem. (2)iii) Explain how feedback helped you to improve your performance in your chosen activity. (2)iv) Explain what is meant by internal feedback. (1)v) Explain what is meant by external feedback2) Feedback is an important aspect of developing skills to an automatic stage. What is meant by feedback? (1)ii) How does feedback help you to develop a skill towards the automatic stage? (1)
42Co-operationIt is important that you can effectively co-operate with class mates. This involves practising together and talking about how best complete tasks.Co-operation also involves observing a partner and recording information.When participating as part of a team working co-operatively involves accepting responsibility and recognising you role within a team.
43Mechanical Principles Learning OutcomesWhat is balance, are there different types of balance?Centre of gravityBody tensionTransfer of Weight and benefits to performance if completed effectivelyForce and the application of force.FrictionFollow through
44BalanceBalance is the ability to retain the centre of gravity over your base of support. There are two types of balances:Static balances2) Dynamic balances
45Centre of Gravity Centre of gravity is to do with stability. The heavier you are, the more stable you will beTo be balanced your centre of gravity should be inside your baseA low position with a wide base is more balanced
48Body TensionFor technique to be effective it is helpful if the major muscles involved in balances have good body tension.In gymnastics explain how good body tension helped to improve the quality of your balances?
49Transfer Of WeightThe transfer of weight allows you to move your body from one place to another. How well you transfer your weight involves considering how well balanced you are when performing.To transfer your weight in any direction, you must apply a force in the opposite direction. The force is created when you contract your muscles.At times, this can be single actions such as throwing the javelin. At other times, for example when running, simple actions are repeated.Name 2 activities, describe one technique which requires a single transference of weight and describe another technique which requires repeated transference of weight
50Application of ForceWhen performing different skills and techniques different forces are applied and resisted.For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (Newton’s third law)
51Application of ForceIf speed is required then the greater force applied the better. Differences in the mass of the body will affect performance.If the force applied to the sprinting block (100m sprint) is the same the athlete with a smaller mass will accelerate at a quicker rate.
52ForceYou must apply force in one direction to move in the opposite direction.Look at the following examples. Explain where force is applied and what direction the person or equipment moves.BA.C
53FrictionThis is when contact between two surfaces cause a slowing down or gripping effect.This can be an advantage or disadvantage depending on the activity and the skill or technique you are trying to complete.Adv. Football boots getting a good grip on the ground to stop the player slipping and allow them to change direction quicklyDisAdv. In cycling when the wind slows you downChoose four activities explain how friction affects your performance.
54RotationIn different activities you rotate (turn) in order to carry out skills and techniques.When throwing the discus in athletics you turn around in a spinning back-to-front movement to generate power. This is a complex technique. You build up speed before throwing by quickly turning until you have regained balance.You can also rotate by performing a forward roll.Name two skills in which you turn head over heals.
55ResistanceWhen you apply force there will be resistance. Like friction, resistance can either be an advantage or disadvantage.Adv. When sprinting in athletics the starting blocks are an advantage. They provide resistance.DisAdv. If you are running into a headwind this slows you down.Resistance can be reduced or increased depending on your technique. In swimming if you keep your head out of the water when doing the front crawl this creates a greater resistance with the water and slows you down. Reduce resistance by putting head level with the water (streamlined)
56Follow throughWhen completing different skills and techniques it is important to have a good follow through. A good follow through is part of effective performance and follows on from the preparation and action phases in different skills and techniques.An example would be kicking a ball in football, the follow through is in the direction of the shot.In other actions the follow through involves body rotation.The ball and socket joints in the hips and shoulder help rotation in this striking action.
57Mechanical Principles A. What is the importance of transfer of weight when completing an ‘overhead clear’?B. When completing a ‘headstand’ what affect would having a small base have your performance?C. Why is body tension important when completing static balances?D. Where must your centre of gravity be maintained to hold a balance?E. Give an example of a dynamic balance?F. Name two activities where equipment is used to reduce friction?G. In swimming, how did improving your technique, reduce your resistance in the water?H. Describe one technique in three different activities where follow through is important (use kicking, striking and throwing)?