2HydrodynamicsThe study of propulsion and resistance in waterPropulsionthe force which drives an object through the waterHuman propulsion in water is generated by the use of…Arms, hands, legs and feetThe structure of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints allow a wide range of movementThese joints can be rotated to produce the required forces more functionally than the hips, knees and ankles
3Basic Forms of Propulsion PaddlingPulling and pushing action of hands and arms in waterScullingMovement of hands through the water at approximately right angles to the direction of intended travelFinningLeg kicking action of freestyle, backstroke and butterflyPrior Learning:Newton’s 3rd Law“For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”
4Newton’s 3rd Law in Swimming ReactionActionPush downPush upPush backForced upForced downPropelled forwardThe consequence is that the body bobs up and down as the swimmer moves through the water.
5In addition, if the swimmer swings their arms to the side, the reaction is for the legs to swing to the opposite side with an equal amount of force. = “Snaking” pathwayAt the advanced swimmer stage resistance must be kept to a minimum in order to improve propulsion.SummaryThe propulsive forces generated by the hands, arms, legs and feet should be directly opposite to direction of preferred movement.
6Bernoulli’s Principle “Greater propulsion in water is obtained by moving a large amount of water a short distance than by moving a small amount a great distance”
7If a swimmer pulls their hand in a straight line it is pushing a small volume of water a long way Once the water has started moving backwards the swimmer cannot apply as much force on the water as his hand meets less resistanceTo obtain maximum propulsion the hand must move faster than the waterThe best method is to seek stationary or ‘still’ water by using a curved pathway for the hands
8Video - Freestyle Arm Pull Note – S ShapeNote – Hand positionVideo - Freestyle Arm Pull
9Bernoulli also found that: “In a region of high flow velocity a low pressure zone is created and in a region of low velocity, a high pressure zone results”.
10Bernoulli EffectWhen fluid particles travel over an object shaped like a wing where there is a convex shape on one of the sides, the particles that travel over the larger area meet up at the back of the wing at the same time as the particles that travelled over the flatter surface on the other side.Therefore, the particles that went over the convex side must have moved faster.Bernoulli found that when particles move fast they create low pressure, and a higher pressure on the other side – and lift can occur
11Application in Swimming? When we move our cupped hand through the water, water travels faster over the knuckles than over the palm.This creates a low pressure by our knuckles and a higher pressure under our palmsWe can use this lift force that occurs to propel us through the waterIn breaststroke, bringing cupped hands in towards the chest creates lift that enables the breathing subroutine of the stroke
12Propulsive Lift Force on the Hand Lift always acts in a direction perpendicular to the flowLift force is felt as pressure on the palms of the hands when the slightly pitched or tilted hand moves through the waterE.g. sculling action; As the hand moves through the water at a slight angle, a pressure differential is created on alternate sides of the handSince motion occurs from high pressure to low pressure, the propulsive lift is perpendicular to the direction of the path of the handE.g. treading water, sculling with horizontal hand movements. Lift force is produced on the hands and maintains the head above the surface
13Propulsive Drag Force on the Hand Propulsive drag is created by the backward movement of the hand through the waterAs the hand is pulled or pushed against the water, a high pressure zone is created on the palm of the hand and a low pressure zone on the backThe difference in pressure creates a force on the swimmer’s hand which moves the swimmer forwardDrag can definitely hinder the progress of a swimmer – as you will see when we talk about resistanceBut without it, a swimmer will not be able to move in waterThink of a sprinter on land – to gain greater speed they wear spikes to get more friction on the track to aid their propulsion
14Swimmers must do the same, but must be careful about not creating too much drag to slow them down Drag can aid propulsion by the hand ‘grabbing’ the waterNewton’s 3rd law – action of grabbing the water, reaction of the body going forwardThe hand pulling backwards produces a high pressure in the palm and a low pressure at the back of the handScientists have concluded that the swimmer gains propulsion by both drag and lift and by changing sequences of the hand during the stroke to get a ‘resultant force’
15Angle of AttackThe swimmer needs to continually change the pitch of the hand as it travels it’s curved path so that it is using both drag and lift forces to maximum effectThe angle should be about 45 degrees so that the resultant force is an equal contribution of both lift and drag – so that the body moves forward
16Other factors… The size of the hand The shape of the hand Slippage Feathering(diagrams in handout)
17Student TaskExplain, in detail, how Bernoulli’s principles of propulsion affected your first swimming performance.