Standard Grade Knowledge & Understanding Skills & Techniques - Mechanical Principles Balance Balance Axis of Rotation Axis of Rotation Transfer of Weight.

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Standard Grade Knowledge & Understanding Skills & Techniques - Mechanical Principles Balance Balance Axis of Rotation Axis of Rotation Transfer of Weight Transfer of Weight Force Force Resistance Resistance Friction Friction Propulsion Propulsion Levers Levers

Balance Balance is the ability to retain the centre of gravity over your base of support. Balance is the ability to retain the centre of gravity over your base of support. Balance – The ability to remain balanced depends on 2 things: Balance – The ability to remain balanced depends on 2 things: A) Base of Support A) Base of Support B) Centre of Gravity B) Centre of Gravity If your base of support is large your balance will be more stable If your base of support is small, it is harder to keep your balance

Balance To remain balanced for a period of time, you have to tighten the muscles in your body – this is called body tension To remain balanced for a period of time, you have to tighten the muscles in your body – this is called body tension The exact muscle requirements depend upon the nature of the task. The exact muscle requirements depend upon the nature of the task. Static balances such as headstand in gymnastics require you to hold a balance Static balances such as headstand in gymnastics require you to hold a balance Dynamic balances require you to maintain balance under constantly changing conditions. When skiing you constantly adjust your dynamic balance as you travel over changing terrain in order to remain balance Dynamic balances require you to maintain balance under constantly changing conditions. When skiing you constantly adjust your dynamic balance as you travel over changing terrain in order to remain balance StaticDynamic

Good balance is very important to be successful in lots of activities: A large base allows the golfer to be balanced in preparation for his swing A low centre of gravity allows a volleyball player to remain balanced when performing a dig Having his centre of gravity over his base allows the footballer to be balanced during his shooting action

Axis of Rotation There are 3 axis of rotation: There are 3 axis of rotation: Vertical Axis – top to bottom (ie – Full turn jump) Vertical Axis – top to bottom (ie – Full turn jump) Transverse Axis – side to side (ie – front somersault, backwards roll) Transverse Axis – side to side (ie – front somersault, backwards roll) Antero Posterior Axis – front to back (ie – cartwheel) Antero Posterior Axis – front to back (ie – cartwheel) Vertical Transverse Antero Posterior

Transfer of Weight Transfer of weight is very important in physical activities. It allows you to move your body from one place to another Transfer of weight is very important in physical activities. It allows you to move your body from one place to another To transfer your weight, a force must be applied in the opposite direction. Force is created by the contraction of muscles To transfer your weight, a force must be applied in the opposite direction. Force is created by the contraction of muscles In order for the volleyball player to transfer his weight upwards he must push down hard on the court

Transfer of Weight Transferring weight is also important in activities where an object has to be struck with power Transferring weight is also important in activities where an object has to be struck with power By transferring his weight forward the softball player can exert a greater force on the ball, thus hitting it further From your course describe one technique which requires a single transference of weight? From your course describe one technique which requires a repeated transference of weight?

Resistance In some activities resistance can be a disadvantage (it may hold you back) For example cyclists wear tight lycra clothing, which helps reduce air resistance, and lets them cycle faster A specially designed helmet and curved body position also helps to reduce air resistance

Friction When two surfaces touch friction occurs. In football, players wear boots with studs. This enables them to grip the ground better, helping them to turn quickly. If a player used flat soled trainers, the lack of friction between the shoe and the ground would result in the player slipping when turning.

Propulsion Propulsion is the movement of an object through water Propulsion is the movement of an object through water In rowing, oars are used to pull the water back, thus propelling the boat forwards In rowing, oars are used to pull the water back, thus propelling the boat forwards In swimming, arms and legs act in a similar way. They force the water back, pushing the body forwards. The faster and stronger the pull, the faster the swimmer will go In swimming, arms and legs act in a similar way. They force the water back, pushing the body forwards. The faster and stronger the pull, the faster the swimmer will go By keeping a streamlined shape in the water (long thin shape), a swimmer can move faster due to reduced water resistance By keeping a streamlined shape in the water (long thin shape), a swimmer can move faster due to reduced water resistance Competitive swimmers sometimes shave their legs and arms in a bid to reduce water resistance even further Competitive swimmers sometimes shave their legs and arms in a bid to reduce water resistance even further

Levers Levers can be used to create more power in physical activities. Levers can be used to create more power in physical activities. The longer the lever used, the more power gained The longer the lever used, the more power gained In tennis, a player will extend her arm and the racquet in order to hit the ball more powerfully. This is best demonstrated with the serve In tennis, a player will extend her arm and the racquet in order to hit the ball more powerfully. This is best demonstrated with the serve In softball, a player will hold the bat at the bottom, creating a long lever. This allows him to produce a much more powerful hit In softball, a player will hold the bat at the bottom, creating a long lever. This allows him to produce a much more powerful hit In football, a player will shoot using the whole of the leg. By making a long lever with the leg, more power can be transferred to the shot. In football, a player will shoot using the whole of the leg. By making a long lever with the leg, more power can be transferred to the shot. Long levers

Levers Short levers are also important in some activities. By using a short lever, the performer can gain more accuracy and control Short levers are also important in some activities. By using a short lever, the performer can gain more accuracy and control For example, in football some players choose to shoot with the inside of the foot. Given that the lever used for this skill is shorter (knee to foot), less power but more accuracy can be obtained For example, in football some players choose to shoot with the inside of the foot. Given that the lever used for this skill is shorter (knee to foot), less power but more accuracy can be obtained

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