Presentation on theme: "REMOTE OPERATIONS OBJECTIVES"— Presentation transcript:
1REMOTE OPERATIONS OBJECTIVES List the factors and their effects on aircraft performance.List the factors evaluated during a high and low recon.Describe a typical remote site traffic pattern.List the altitude and airspeed minimums for the high and low recons as well as turning approaches.List the restrictions on descent rates on an approach.List the different types of confined area takeoffs.Explain the effects remote site size and pilot technique have on power required.Explain why OGE hover requires more power than IGE hover.
2WHY STUDY REMOTE OPS?Remote flying is what helicopter operations is all about. You can land or hover almost anywhere.Remote operations are daily occurrences in the helicopter world.Knowledge of procedures can prevent accidents and accomplish the mission successfully.
3OVERVIEW I. Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness Factors Affecting Aircraft PerformanceEffects of Factors on Aircraft PerformanceApprehensionPinnacle ApproachHoveringTypes of WindCommand Responsibility
4OVERVIEW II. Remote Operations Procedures Pre-mission Preparation Power Available/Power Required ChecksHigh ReconsLow ReconsRemote Area PatternsConfined Area Approaches, Landings and Takeoffs
5Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 1. Factors Affecting Aircraft PerformancePressure Altitude (PA). As PA increases the amount of air available to support the aircraft (lift) decreases.Temperature. The density of the air is affected by the temperature. As temp increases the air becomes less dense; the lift generated by the rotor system decreases.Relative Humidity. Moist air is less dense than dry air, thus reducing the lift capability
6Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 2. Effects of Factors on Aircraft PerformancePitch Setting. As altitude increases, a higher pitch setting is required in the rotor system to produce the required lift.Tail Rotor Control. More left pedal is required for all maneuvers to compensate for the higher collective setting.Torque available. Torque available (power available) decreases with altitude, and the power required increases slightly.90 KIAS. For a given indicated airspeed, say 90 KIAS, the aircraft will possess more inertia at higher altitudes that it would at lower altitudes.Translational Lift. Since the rotor system has to work harder to draw air from the front during forward flight, you tend to lose translational lift earlier in the approach. Similarly, you will achieve translational lift at a later stage on a go-around or takeoff.
7Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 3. ApprehensionIt is quite normal to be apprehensive while flying remote operations, especially in the mountains. The key to overcoming this apprehension is realistic training. There is no substitute for experience.
8Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 4. Uneven Terrain / Pinnacle ApproachDuring an approach, you must be aware that uneven terrain surrounding the landing site gives poor visual cues as to the actual aircraft altitude and the rate of closure.Up-sloping TerrainDown-sloping Terrain
9Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 5. HoveringHovering against steeply sloping terrain can cause vertigo. When this is suspected, the copilot can assist by calling "wing level." You should shift your hover reference away from the slope toward more level terrain.
10Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 6. Types of WindPrevailing Winds. This is the general flow of upper-level winds.Surface Winds. This is the layer of air that lies close to the ground.Local Winds. Sometimes called valley or canyon winds, they are present everywhere in the mountains and are unrelated to prevailing winds.
11Aircraft Performance and Situational Awareness 7. Command ResponsibilityAlthough the safe operation of the aircraft is the ultimate responsibility of the aircraft commander, it is also the responsibility of each crew member.Any time there is confusion as to what is happening during the operation or to the aircraft, question it and get it clarified.If the aircraft or crew are not performing correctly call "go around."
12Remote Operations Procedures Pre-mission PreparationPower Available/Power Required ChecksHigh ReconsLow ReconsRemote Area PatternsConfined Area Approaches, Landings and Takeoffs
13Remote Operations Procedures 1. Pre-Mission PreparationAcquire the landing site conditions, if available (elevation, temp, obstacles).Accurate wind information is more difficult to obtain and more variable than other planning data.Each crew member must know and understand their responsibilities throughout the flight and while at the remote site.
14Remote Operations Procedures 2. Power Available / Power RequiredConfirm current PA and Temperature has not increased by 500’/5 degrees respectivelyPerform Power Available check (OGE +3)Determine the power required for ALL aspects of the remote operation (takeoff and landing).
15Remote Operations Procedures 3. High Reconnaissance PatternDictated by terrain, wind, obstacles, and emergency landing areas.The remote site should remain within visual range throughout the recon so recon assessment can be efficiently completed.Maintain minimum 50 KIAS and approximately 300 feet AGL during the high recon.Dependent upon the size, shape and surrounding terrain, the recon pattern may be rectangular, racetrack (oval), or orbital.
16Remote Operations Procedures Wide open area (200’x300’=HUGE)
17Remote Operations Procedures Wide open area = Rectangular pattern
18Remote Operations Procedures Confined Area (100’x150’=VERY SMALL LZ)
19Remote Operations Procedures Confined Area = Circular/Orbital Pattern
20Remote Operations Procedures 4. High Reconnaissance Items to EvaluateW--Wind directionE -- Elevation of the site (29.92 to find the PA / confirms TOLD)T -- Temperature of site (ambient temp also confirms TOLD)P -- Power Available / Power Required / marginA --Approach and departure routesS -- Size, shape, slope and suitabilityT -- Touchdown pointE -- Escape route / go-no-go point
21Go/No-Go Option?At what point could the aircraft have sufficient power to stop its descent and/or go-around?
22Go/No-Go Option?At what point could the aircraft have sufficient power to stop its descent and/or go-around?
23Go/No-Go Option?At what point could the aircraft have sufficient power to stop its descent and/or go-around?
24Go/No-Go Option?At what point could the aircraft have sufficient power to stop its descent and/or go-around?AOnce you pass the tree-line, you’ll most likely be committed for the approach.B
25Remote Operations Procedures 5. Low Recon PatternLow Recon Approach. Initiated from 300 feet AGL. Use the same approach angle intended for the actual approach. Descend no lower than 50 feet AHO (along both approach and departure path) and decelerate no slower than 50 KIAS.Evaluate. During the low recon, confirm the following high recon items:(1) Size, Slope, Suitability(2) Winds, to include turbulence(3) Entry, Exit, and Abort Routes(4) Elevation(5) Touchdown Point.Re-Evaluate High Recon. If a discrepancy or change is noted on the low recon, re-evaluate the applicable high recon items.
26Remote Operations Procedures 6. Confined Area Pattern.After the low recon is completed, climb back to traffic pattern altitude (300 AGL) and complete the Before Landing checklist.Ideally the pattern flown for the final approach should be no larger than the high recon pattern.Use other crewmembers if needed to keep remote site in visual range.
27Remote Operations Procedures 7. Confined Area Approach.Ensure that sufficient power is available above computed requirements to safely complete the approach or hover.Consider the weight of survivors or equipment to be picked up on computing power for a hover and/or takeoff.
28Remote Operations Procedures 8. Approach Planning Factors.Abort RouteSettling with PowerPower RequiredEngine LagWind Shifts. Rotor DroopNull Areas
29Remote Operations Procedures 9. Turning ApproachesThese approaches may be used when terrain and obstacles will not allow a normal traffic pattern, or if you are completing successive approaches to a landing site.Minimum entry altitudes is 300 feet AGL with a safe airspeed, not less than 50 KIAS.By varying the rate of turn, airspeed and the descent rate, you can maneuver your aircraft to a point on final that allows for a normal approach to the touchdown area without aggravated flares or excessive control movements.
30Remote Operations Procedures 10. Confined Area LandingsHovering. It is recommended that you terminate confined area approaches at a hover.Landing. Lower the helicopter gently to the ground. When the helicopter contacts the surface, maintain rotor RPM and slowly decrease the collective.Slopes. Slopes are naturally inherent to remote operations. The biggest danger is the phenomena known as dynamic rollover.
32Remote Operations Conclusion I. Aircraft Performance and Situational AwarenessFactors Affecting Aircraft PerformanceEffects of Factors on Aircraft PerformanceApprehensionPinnacle ApproachHoveringTypes of WindCommand Responsibility
33Remote Operations Conclusion II. Remote Operations ProceduresPre-mission PreparationPower Available/Power Required ChecksHigh ReconsLow ReconsRemote Area PatternsConfined Area Approaches, Landings and Takeoffs
34QUESTIONS? Remote exam questions will be taken from: This fine lecture Remote CAIAETCI Attch 3Applicable SOP areasSorry, but due to copyright infringements, transcripts of this lecture and power point presentation are unavailable at this time.