Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton: skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column: cervical -7; thoracic – 12; lumbar – 5; sacral – 5 (fused as 1); coccyx – 4 (fused as 1) Appendicular skeleton: Pectoral girdle (scapulae and clavicles); humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges Pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis); femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges
Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton in terms of function The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones along the central axis of the human body. Primary function is protection. Of what? _________ The appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones of the lower limbs and upper limbs. Primary function is locomotion.
State four types of bones Long Short Flat Irregular
Cont’d Long: Typical bone type (ex. like a dog bone), long, straight + sometimes rounded ends. -----Ex. Humerus, Femur, Radius, Ulna, Tibia, Fibula, etc.. Short; Very small bones in the hands and feet. -----Ex. Carpal and Tarsal bones. Irregular: Strange shape, doesn't really fit into another category. -----Ex. temporal bone, skull bones with facial features, etc... Flat: Protective bones that are smooth and flat -----Ex. Top of cranium, ribs, sternum, etc...
Draw and annotate the structure of a long bone Must include the: Epiphysis, spongy bone, articular cartilage, diaphysis, compact bone, bone marrow, marrow cavity, blood vessel, periosteum
Terminology A. Superior: toward the head or upper part of a structure Example: The head is superior to the shoulders. B. Inferior: away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure Example: The intestines are inferior to the lungs C. Anterior (also known as ventral): toward the front of the body Example: The trachea is anterior to the esophagus. D. Posterior (also known as dorsal): toward the back of the body Example: The esophagus is posterior to the trachea.
Terminology continued E. Medial: locating a structure nearer to the midline of the body, which divides the body into equal right and left halves. Example: The ulna is medial to the radius. F. Lateral: locating a structure further from the midline of the body Example: The lungs are lateral to the heart. H. Proximal: nearer to the point of attachment of an appendage to the trunk of the body Example: The knee is proximal to the shin. I. Distal: farther from the point of attachment of an appendage to the trunk of the body Example: The elbow is distal the shoulder.
Terminology cont’d J. Superficial: toward or on the surface of the body Example: The skin is superficial to the muscles. K. Deep: away from the surface of the body. Example: The ribs are deep to the skin
Using the skeleton below and the one in the classroom, properly use each of the following only: Inferior, superior, proximal, distal, medial, lateral, posterior, anterior
Anatomical Planes FRONTAL (or coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into Right and Left parts HORIZONTAL separates the body into Superior and Inferior parts SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the median plane After
Outline the function of connective tissue What is connective tissue? Connective tissue (CT) is a kind of biological tissue that supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body All CT has three main components: cells, fibers, and extracellular matrices
Examples of connective tissue Special connective - reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. IB will limit CT to understanding the function of : – Ligaments – attach bone to bone - Cartilage – articular cartilage/is a type of cartilage found on many joint surfaces (aka hyaline cartilage) -Tendons – attach muscle to bone
Define the term Joint A joint occurs where two or more bones articulate Types of joints: