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SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 3.  Provide framework for the body  Protect & support the internal organs  Joints help to provide for body movement  Calcium.

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Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 3.  Provide framework for the body  Protect & support the internal organs  Joints help to provide for body movement  Calcium."— Presentation transcript:

1 SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 3

2  Provide framework for the body  Protect & support the internal organs  Joints help to provide for body movement  Calcium is stored in bones  Red bone marrow helps form blood. FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM

3  The skeletal system includes bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints, and bursa  Bones are made of connective tissue.  Bone is almost the hardest tissue in the body SKELETAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

4  The Structure of Bones  Bones are made up of tissue, bone marrow, and cartilage (Figure 3.1, p. 39)  Tissues include  Tissues include: See Table 3.1 (p. 38)  Peri /oste /um – outermost covering of bone  Compact bone – strong outer layer of bone  Spongy bone – found inside and at the ends of bones; red bone marrow located here  Medullary Cavity – shaft of long bone, surrounded by compact bone; contains yellow bone marrow STRUCTURE OF BONES

5 STRUCTURE OF BONES CONT’D.  Bone Marrow  Red bone marrow – located within spongy bone, manufactures products that help form blood cells.  Yellow bone marrow – located in medullary cavity; made of fat cells, serves as fat storage area  Cartilage  Smooth rubbery substance that acts as a shock absorber between bones  Articular cartilage – covers surface of bones that form joints  Meniscus – rounded cartilage (ex. knee)

6 STRUCTURE OF BONES CONT’D STRUCTURE OF BONES CONT’D.  Anatomical Landmarks of a Bone  Diaphysis – shaft of long bone  Epiphysis – wide end of long bone  Proximal epiphysis – end of bone closest to midline of body  Distal epiphysis – end of bone farthest from midline of body  Foramen – opening in a bone for blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments  Process – projection on the surface of a bone that serves as attachments for muscles and tendons

7  Joints  Joints – connections between bones  Types of Joints  Suture – forms a joint between two bones that do not move (ex. - skull)  Symphysis – two bones are held firmly together and act as one bone (ex. – symphysis pubis)  Synovial – movable joints in the body (ex. – ball and socket and hinge joints) apps.uwhealth.org/.../images/en/19903.jpgJOINTS

8 STRUCTURES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS  Turn to p. 40, Figures 3.4 and 3.5  Ligaments  Ligaments – connects bone to bone  Synovial membrane and fluid  Synovial membrane and fluid – synovial joints are surrounded by a capsule and are lined with a membrane. Synovial membrane secretes a fluid that acts as a lubricant.  Bursa  Bursa – a sac, lined with a synovial membrane and also contains synovial fluid. Found in areas where a tendon passes over a bone (ex. knee)

9 BONES OF THE SKULL  Please turn to p. 43, Figures 3.9 and 3.10  Major bones of the skull include:  Frontal  Parietal  Occipital  Temporal  Sphenoid  Ethmoid

10 BONES OF THE FACE  Major bones of the face include:  Zygomatic  Maxilla  Lacrimal  Vomer  Mandible  Nasal

11 BONES OF THE CHEST  Turn to p. 41, figure 3.7  Ribs (12 pair)  Sternum  Xyphoid process  Clavicle  Scapula

12 BONES OF THE UPPER BODY  Turn to p. 44, figures 3.11 and 3.12  Humerus  Radius  Ulna  Carpals  Metacarpals  Phalanges

13 BONES OF THE SPINAL COLUMN  Turn to p. 45, figure 3.14  Cervical vertebra (1-7)  Thoracic vertebra (1-12)  Lumbar vertebra (1-5)  Sacrum  Coccyx

14 BONES OF THE PELVIS  Turn to p. 46, figure 3.15  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis

15 BONES OF THE LOWER BODY  Turn to p. 47, figure 3.17  Femur  Patella  Tibia  Fibula  Tarsals  Metatarsals  Phalanges

16 MEDICAL SPECIALTIES Detailed information can be found on pages 47-48:  Chiropractor  Orthopedic surgeon  Orthotics  Osteopathic MD  Podiatrist  Rheumatologist


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