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And Their Radiographic Appearance

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Presentation on theme: "And Their Radiographic Appearance"— Presentation transcript:

1 And Their Radiographic Appearance
BONES And Their Radiographic Appearance

2 22 Bones make up the skull Cranial bones include: Occipital (one)
Frontal (one) Parietal (two) Temporal (two) Sphenoid (one) Ethmoid (one) Cranial bones surround the brain

3 The Skull Bones: 1 - mandible 2 - maxilla 3 - zygomatic 4 - nasal bone 5 - frontal bone 6 - sphenoid bone 7 - temporal 8 - occipital bone 9 - lacrimal bone ethmoid bone parietal bone

4 Facial bones include: Mandible (one) Maxilla (two) Zygomatic (two) Lacrimal (two) Nasal (two) Inferior nasal conchal (two) Vomer (one)

5 Terms that describe bone anatomy
Process – general term for any prominence Fossa - depression on the surface of the bone Suture – where two bones join Tuberosity – bony prominance, usually where muscle attaches, ie maxillary tuberosity suture Mastoid process Temporal fossa

6 Terms that describe bone anatomy
Notch – indentation on the edge of a bone Ridge – elongated prominence Foramen - opening Mental foramen External oblique ridge Mandibular notch

7 Two types of Bone – compact and cancellous
Cancellous bone (also called spongy bone) makes up center of bones Contains bone marrow spaces (called “trabeculation” on radiographs) More radiolucent than compact bone trabeculation

8 Compact Bone Compact bone- forms plates that form outside of bones, linings for alveolus, foramina, etc… Is more radiopaque because of its density Compact bone Cancellous bone

9 Compact Bone Lines Alveolus (socket)
It is also called (*and means same thing): Lamina dura (on radiographs only) Cribriform plate Cortical bone Alveolar bone proper

10 Compact bone outlines alveolar crest (when no bone has been lost due to periodontal disease!)
Alveolar crest (radiopaque) Periodontal ligament space (radiolucent lining) Lamina dura (radiopaque lining)

11 Do you see any compact bone outlining the alveolar crest?

12 Lateral View Identification
Mandible Maxilla Zygomatic arch Condyle External auditory meatus Temporal bone

13 Lateral closeup Condyle Articular eminence Coronoid process Ramus
Articular fossa Mandibular notch Coronoid notch 6 7

14 Temporomandibular Joint
Articular or gleniod fossa Articular eminance Mandibular condyle articulates with temporal bone in the articular fossa (also called glenoid fossa, mandibular fossa) Most anterior border of articular fossa is the articular eminance If someone opens wide and the condyle slides anterior to the eminance, the person has “lockjaw”

15 Lateral closeup Dehiscence Fenestration Mental foramen
Zygomatic process of maxilla Alveolar bone Alveolar crest External oblique ridge 7

16 Dehiscence vs Fenestration
Bony defects of unknown cause Neither can be found radiographically, only during surgery Fenestration, defect completely surrounded by bone Dehiscence, alveolar crest bone absent fenestration dehiscence

17 Bones of the Orbit In order of appearance Frontal Zygomatic Maxillary
Palatine Sphenoid Lacrimal Ethmoid

18 Nasal Cavity Orbit Maxillary Sinus

19 Zygomatic Arch Commonly called the “cheekbone”
Comprised of three bones, temporal, maxilla, zygoma temporal zygoma maxilla sutures

20 Zygomatic Arch Zygomatic process of temporal bone joins with temporal
process of zygoma Maxillary process of zygoma joins with zygomatic process of maxilla Zygomatic Arch

21 Radiographically, the zygomatic arch appears as a radiopaque horseshoe shaped structure above maxillary molars (not always seen)

22 Maxillary Sinus – an opening in the maxillary bone, acts as a filter for inhaled air
Location of the sinus Inside of sinus with bony covering removed

23 Inverted Y Maxillary sinus meets nasal cavity in area of canine
On radiographs, wall of sinus crosses wall of nasal cavity (both are radiopaque because they are compact bone) Result is the “inverted Y”

24 Inverted Y Nasal cavity Inverted Y Maxillary sinus

25 Septa of maxillary sinus (divides cavity)
Zygomatic Arch Floor of maxillary sinus (radiopaque)

26 Frontal View Identification
Frontal bone Orbit Mental protuberance

27 Skull Identification Midline suture Anterior Nasal spine Nasal septum
Infraorbital foramen Lateral fossa Superior nasal conchae 6

28 Anterior Radiograph Median palatal suture (radiolucent)
Noseline (cartilage) Nasal spine (radiopaque V-shaped prominence) Nasal conchae Nasal septum (elongated, thicker radiopacity) 5

29 Lateral Fossa – a depression between the maxillary cuspid and incisor
Exercise – feel your lateral fossa with your finger

30 Inferior nasal conchae Nasal septum Lateral fossa
(divides nasal cavity) Anterior Nasal spine (V-shaped) Lateral fossa (Radiolucency inside circle)

31 Internal Oblique ridge- (slightly inferior to external oblique ridge)
Mandibular foramen Mental ridge- see figure Iannucci Lingula – a bony projection that partially covers the mandibular foramen

32 Lingual foramen Genial tubercles (muscles attach here) Submandibular fossa (depression for submandibular Salivary gland)

33 Coronoid process Coronoid notch Mandibular (sigmoid) Notch Condyle Ramus External oblique ridge Angle of the mandible

34 External oblique ridge (thicker radiopaque band)
Note: External/internal ridges often “superimposed” over each other radiographically; therefore difficult to differentiate between the two; external always superior to internal oblique ridge (mylohyoid muscle attachment); internal usually runs below roots of mandibular molars (see figure 27-41, Iannucci)

35 Internal on “inside” or lingual

36 A- external oblique ridge B- internal oblique ridge
C- submandibular fossa D- mandibular canal A B Hyoid bone

37 Mandibular foramen Mandibular canal Submandibular fossa
Soft tissue outline- retromolar area Submandibular fossa (large radiolucency within the circle)

38 External oblique ridge
Mandibular canal

39 Submandibular fossa

40 Nutrient canals – passageways to teeth for vessels (arrows on film),
often seen around maxillary premolars Genial tubercles (Radiopacities) Lingual foramen (radiolucency)

41 Mental Foramen Mylohyoid ridge or internal oblique ridge (see down by roots of teeth)– actually on lingual of mandible

42 Palate Nasopalatine or Incisive foramen Median palatine suture
Anterior or Greater palatine foramen Posterior or Lessor palatine foramen Hamulus

43 Nasopalatine or Incisive
Palatal Radiographs Median Palatal suture Nasopalatine or Incisive foramen

44 Sphenoid Bone A butterfly shaped cranial bone posterior to the palate
It forms part of the orbit It’s hamulus can sometimes be seen on third molar radiograph Some muscles of masticaton attach to Pterygoid plate Hamulus Lateral pterygoid plate

45 Temporal bone A cranial bone that articulates with mandible in its articular fossa Other landmarks include styloid process, mastoid process Forms part of zygomatic arch Mastoid process Articular or glenoid fossa (where condyle sits)

46 Infratemporal Space (skull with mandible removed)
Articular or Glenoid fossa Maxillary tuberosity Styloid process (can sometimes be seen on a panoral)

47 Condyle and glenoid fossa Hard palate Coronoid process
(horizontal thicker radiopaque line)

48 External oblique ridge
Maxillary tuberosity External oblique ridge Nasal spine Inverted Y

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