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And Their Radiographic Appearance BONES. 22 Bones make up the skull Cranial bones include: Occipital (one) Frontal (one) Parietal (two) Temporal (two)

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Presentation on theme: "And Their Radiographic Appearance BONES. 22 Bones make up the skull Cranial bones include: Occipital (one) Frontal (one) Parietal (two) Temporal (two)"— Presentation transcript:

1 And Their Radiographic Appearance BONES

2 22 Bones make up the skull Cranial bones include: Occipital (one) Frontal (one) Parietal (two) Temporal (two) Sphenoid (one) Ethmoid (one) Cranial bones surround the brain

3 The Skull Bones: 1 - mandible 2 - maxilla 3 - zygomatic 4 - nasal bone 5 - frontal bone 6 - sphenoid bone 7 - temporal 8 - occipital bone 9 - lacrimal bone 10 - ethmoid bone 11 - parietal bone

4 Facial bones include: Mandible (one) Maxilla (two) Zygomatic (two) Lacrimal (two) Nasal (two) Inferior nasal conchal (two) Vomer (one)

5 Terms that describe bone anatomy Process – general term for any prominence Fossa - depression on the surface of the bone Suture – where two bones join Tuberosity – bony prominance, usually where muscle attaches, ie maxillary tuberosity Mastoid process Temporal fossa suture

6 Terms that describe bone anatomy Notch – indentation on the edge of a bone Ridge – elongated prominence Foramen - opening Mental foramen External oblique ridge Mandibular notch

7 Two types of Bone – compact and cancellous Cancellous bone (also called spongy bone) makes up center of bones Contains bone marrow spaces (called “trabeculation” on radiographs) More radiolucent than compact bone trabeculation

8 Compact Bone 1.Compact bone- forms plates that form outside of bones, linings for alveolus, foramina, etc… 2.Is more radiopaque because of its density Compact bone Cancellous bone

9 Compact Bone Lines Alveolus (socket) It is also called (*and means same thing): 1.Lamina dura (on radiographs only) 2.Cribriform plate 3.Cortical bone 4.Alveolar bone proper

10 Lamina dura (radiopaque lining) Periodontal ligament space (radiolucent lining) Compact bone outlines alveolar crest (when no bone has been lost due to periodontal disease!) Alveolar crest (radiopaque)

11 Do you see any compact bone outlining the alveolar crest?

12 Lateral View Identification 1.Mandible 2.Maxilla 3.Zygomatic arch 4.Condyle 5.External auditory meatus 6.Temporal bone

13 Lateral closeup 1.Condyle 2.Articular eminence 3.Coronoid process 4.Ramus 5.Articular fossa 6.Mandibular notch 7.Coronoid notch 6 7

14 Temporomandibular Joint Mandibular condyle articulates with temporal bone in the articular fossa (also called glenoid fossa, mandibular fossa) Most anterior border of articular fossa is the articular eminance If someone opens wide and the condyle slides anterior to the eminance, the person has “lockjaw” Articular or gleniod fossa Articular eminance

15 Lateral closeup 1.Dehiscence 2.Fenestration 3.Mental foramen 4.Zygomatic process of maxilla 5.Alveolar bone 6.Alveolar crest 7.External oblique ridge 7

16 Dehiscence vs Fenestration Bony defects of unknown cause Neither can be found radiographically, only during surgery Fenestration, defect completely surrounded by bone Dehiscence, alveolar crest bone absent dehiscence fenestration

17 Bones of the Orbit In order of appearance Frontal Zygomatic Maxillary Palatine Sphenoid Lacrimal Ethmoid

18 Maxillary Sinus Nasal CavityOrbit

19 Zygomatic Arch Commonly called the “cheekbone” Comprised of three bones, temporal, maxilla, zygoma maxilla zygoma temporal sutures

20 Zygomatic Arch Maxillary process of zygoma joins with zygomatic process of maxilla Zygomatic process of temporal bone joins with temporal process of zygoma Zygomatic Arch

21 Radiographically, the zygomatic arch appears as a radiopaque horseshoe shaped structure above maxillary molars (not always seen)

22 Maxillary Sinus – an opening in the maxillary bone, acts as a filter for inhaled air Location of the sinus Inside of sinus with bony covering removed

23 Inverted Y Maxillary sinus meets nasal cavity in area of canine On radiographs, wall of sinus crosses wall of nasal cavity (both are radiopaque because they are compact bone) Result is the “inverted Y”

24 Inverted Y Maxillary sinus Nasal cavity Inverted Y

25 Floor of maxillary sinus (radiopaque) Zygomatic Arch Septa of maxillary sinus (divides cavity)

26 Frontal View Identification 1.Frontal bone 2.Orbit 3.Mental protuberance

27 Skull Identification 1.Midline suture 2.Anterior Nasal spine 3.Nasal septum 4.Infraorbital foramen 5.Lateral fossa 6.Superior nasal conchae 6

28 Anterior Radiograph 1.Median palatal suture (radiolucent) 2.Noseline (cartilage) 3.Nasal spine (radiopaque V-shaped prominence) 4.Nasal conchae 5.Nasal septum (elongated, thicker radiopacity) 5

29 Lateral Fossa – a depression between the maxillary cuspid and incisor Exercise – feel your lateral fossa with your finger

30 Nasal septum (divides nasal cavity) Anterior Nasal spine (V-shaped) Lateral fossa (Radiolucency inside circle) Inferior nasal conchae

31 Mandibular foramen Internal Oblique ridge- (slightly inferior to external oblique ridge) Lingula – a bony projection that partially covers the mandibular foramen Mental ridge- see figure Iannucci

32 Lingual foramen Genial tubercles (muscles attach here) Submandibular fossa (depression for submandibular Salivary gland)

33 Coronoid notch Coronoid process External oblique ridge Mandibular (sigmoid) Notch Ramus Condyle Angle of the mandible

34 External oblique ridge (thicker radiopaque band) Note: External/internal ridges often “superimposed” over each other radiographically; therefore difficult to differentiate between the two; external always superior to internal oblique ridge (mylohyoid muscle attachment); internal usually runs below roots of mandibular molars (see figure 27-41, Iannucci)

35 Internal on “inside” or lingual

36 A- external oblique ridge B- internal oblique ridge C- submandibular fossa D- mandibular canal B A Hyoid bone

37 Mandibular foramen Mandibular canal Submandibular fossa (large radiolucency within the circle) Soft tissue outline- retromolar area

38 Mandibular canal External oblique ridge

39 Submandibular fossa

40 Nutrient canals – passageways to teeth for vessels (arrows on film), often seen around maxillary premolars Lingual foramen (radiolucency) Genial tubercles (Radiopacities)

41 Mental Foramen Mylohyoid ridge or internal oblique ridge (see down by roots of teeth)– actually on lingual of mandible

42 Nasopalatine or Incisive foramen Palate Anterior or Greater palatine foramen Median palatine suture Posterior or Lessor palatine foramen Hamulus

43 Palatal Radiographs Median Palatal suture Nasopalatine or Incisive foramen

44 Sphenoid Bone A butterfly shaped cranial bone posterior to the palate It forms part of the orbit It’s hamulus can sometimes be seen on third molar radiograph Some muscles of masticaton attach to Pterygoid plate Lateral pterygoid plateHamulus

45 Temporal bone A cranial bone that articulates with mandible in its articular fossa Other landmarks include styloid process, mastoid process Forms part of zygomatic arch Articular or glenoid fossa (where condyle sits) Mastoid process

46 Infratemporal Space (skull with mandible removed) Maxillary tuberosity Styloid process (can sometimes be seen on a panoral) Articular or Glenoid fossa

47 Condyle and glenoid fossa Hard palate (horizontal thicker radiopaque line) Coronoid process

48 Maxillary tuberosity Inverted Y External oblique ridge Nasal spine


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