Information process is a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived transformed into information, and stored.
Information Processing for Consumer Decision Making
Perceptual Defense Means that individual are not passive recipients of marketing message.
Exposure occurs when a stimulus is placed within a person’s relevant environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves. Exposure provides consumers with the opportunity to pay attention to available information but in o way guarantees it.
Selective Exposure The highly selective nature of consumer exposure is a major concern for marketer since failure to gain exposure results in lost communication and sales opportunity.
Voluntary Exposure Although consumers often avoid commercials and other marketing stimuli, sometimes they actively seek them out for various reasons including purchase goals, entertainment, and information.
Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensation go to the brain foe processing.
Stimulus Factors are physical characteristics of stimulus itself. Stimulus characteristics such as ad size are under the marketer’s control and can attract attention independent of individual or situational characteristics.
Size Larger stimuli are more likely to be noticed than smaller one. Size also affects attention to advertise.
Intensity The intensity of a stimulus can increase attention. Repetition is related to intensity. It is number of time an individual is exposed to a given stimulus, such as an ad or brand logo, over time. This attention reallocation is important since many of a brand’s features can be communicated through the ad’s text, but convincing consumers to read is difficult.
Attractive Visuals Individuals tend to be attracted to pleasant stimuli and repelled by unpleasant stimuli.
Color and Movement Both color and movement serve to attract attention, with brightly colored and moving items being noticeable. Source: 1 ”How Important is Color to an Ad?” Starch Tested Copy. February 1989, p.1. Roper Starch Worldwide, Inc. Color and Size Impact on Attention 1
Position Position refers to the placement of an object in physical space or time. Position effects in advertising often depend on the medium and how consumers normally interact with that medium. End-caps provide a way to capture the shopper’s attention
Isolation Isolation is separating a stimulus object from other object. In store, the use of stand-alone kiosks is based on this principle. In advertising, the use of “white space” is based on this principle.
Format Format refers to the manner in which the message is presented.
Contrast and Expectations Contrast is related to the idea of expectations. Expectations drive our perceptions of contrast. Adaptation level theory suggests that if a stimulus doesn’t change, over time we adapt or habituate to it and begin to notice it less. This billboard ad provides contrast for enhanced attention.
Information Quality Information quality represents the number of cues in the stimulus field. One explanation is that increase in information quantity in TV ads quickly lead to information overload since consumers have no control over the pace of exposure.
Individual factors are characteristics that distinguish one individual from another.
Motivation Motivation is a drive state created by consumer interests and needs. Smart banners are banner ads that are activated based on terms used in search engines.
Ability Ability refers to capacity of individual to attend to and process information. Brand familiarity is an ability factor related to attention.
Situational factors include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressure or a crowded.
Clutter Clutter represents the density of stimuli in the environment. In-store research suggest that cluttering the environment with too many point-of- purchase displays decrease the attention consumer pay to given display.
Program Involvement Program involvement refers to how interested viewers are in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads. Ad quality represents how well a message is constructed in terms of being believable and appealing, and in communicating the core message effectively. Source: 1 ”Cahners Advertising Research Report and (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated).
Hemispheric Lateralization Hemispheric lateralization is a term applied to activities that take place on each side of the brain. The left side of the brain controls activities related to rational thought. The right side of the brain deals with images and impressions.
Subliminal Stimuli A message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other message that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it is called a subliminal stimulus.
Interpretation is the assignment to sensations. Interpretation is related to how we comprehend and make sense of oncoming information based on characteristics of the stimulus, the individual, and the situation.
Cognitive interpretation is a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. Affective interpretation is the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad.
Individuals are not passive interpreters of marketing and other message but actively assign meaning based on their needs, desire, experience, and expectations. Color is used in the Wrigley’s ad to mean “icy and cool.”
Traits Inherent physiological and psychological trait, which drive our needs and desires, influence hoe stimulus is interpreted. From a psychological standpoint, consumer have natural cognitive, emotional, and behavioral predispositions.
Learning and Knowledge The meanings attached to such ”natural” things as time, space, relationships, and colors are learned and vary widely across cultures.
Expectation Individuals’ interpretations of stimuli tend to be consistent with their expectations, an effect referred to as the expectation bias. Brands create expectations and can thus bias perceptions.
A variety of situational characteristics have an impact on interpretation, including temporary characteristics of the individual, such as time pressure and mood, and physical characteristics of situation, such as the number and characteristics of other individuals present and the nature of the material surrounding the message in question.
The stimulus is the basic entity to which an individual responds and includes the product, package, advertisement, in-store display, and so on.
Organization Stimulus organization refers to the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects. Proximity refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category. Ambush marketing involves any communication or activity that implies, or from which one could reasonably infer, that an organization is associated with an event, when in fact it is not.
Organization Closure involves presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved. Figure-ground involves presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background.
Change The physiological ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli is called sensory discrimination. The minimum amount that one sensory discrimination. The minimum amount that one brand can differ from another with the difference still being noticed is referred to as the just noticeable difference (j.n.d.).
Quality Signals Consumer use their own experiences and knowledge to draw inferences about product quality based in a nonquality cue.
Interpreting Images Consumer inference from visual image are becoming increasingly important as advertisers increase their use of visual imagery.
Missing Information and Ethical Concern When data about an attribute are missing, consumers may assign it a value based on a presumed relationship between that attribute and one for which data are available; they may assign it the average of their assessments of the available attributes; they may assume it to be weaker than the attributes for which data are supplied; or any of a large number of other strategies may be used.
Retailers often use exposure very effectively.
Linguistic Considerations Sometimes brand names start out having no inherent meaning, but gain association over time as consumers gain experience with them. One aspect is inherent semantic meaning or morpheme.
Brand Strategies Brand extension ： an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name such as Levi Strauss putting its Levi name on a line of upscale men’s suit. Co-branding ： an alliance in which two brands are put together on a single product.
Logo Design and Typographics Natural logos depict commonly experienced objects; elaborate logos entail complexity; symmetrical logos are visually balanced.
We must look increasingly for matching media that will enable us best to reach carefully targeted, emerging markets. The rifle approach rather than the old shotgun.
Advertisements must perform two critical tasks – capture attention and convey meaning. Utilize stimulus characteristics such as bright colors or surrealism to attract attention. Tie the message to a topic in which the target market is interested.
Package must attract attention and covey information, and various aspects from color to shape to typography can interact in complex ways in affecting consumer perceptions.