8Elements of Perception SensationThe absolute thresholdThe differential thresholdSubliminal perception
9SensationThe immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuliA stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses.The absolute threshold is the lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation.
10Sensory ReceptorsThe human organs (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin) that receive sensory inputs.
11The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. Absolute ThresholdThe lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation.
12Sensory Adaptation“Getting used to” certain sensations; becoming accommodated to a certain level of stimulation.
13Differential Threshold The minimal difference that can be detected between two stimuli. Also known as the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference).
14Weber’s LawA theory concerning the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (i.e., the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different).
16Differential Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference – J.N.D.) Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuliWeber’s lawThe j.n.d. between two stimuli is not an absolute amount but an amount relative to the intensity of the first stimulusThe stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.Marketers are very concerned with the differential threshold, which is also called the just noticeable difference. It was a German scientist named Ernst Weber who realized that this difference was not a fixed amount. The best example is when you buy a low-priced product like a cup of coffee from Starbucks. A $1 increase in your tall coffee would be noticed by you. But if you were buying a laptop whose price changed from $455 to $456 you might not even notice.
17Marketing Applications of the J.N.D. Marketers need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for their productsso that negative changes are not readily discernible to the publicso that product improvements are very apparent to consumersMarketers make changes in their products over time. Sometimes they have to make negative changes, perhaps increase price or reduce package size. They want to make this negative change subtle enough that most consumers will not notice. On the other hand, a marketer might want to make positive changes to the product. They would want to determine how small they can make this change so that it is noticeable to the end consumer but does not cost the marketer excessive amounts of money. Marketers also want to be careful that when they change the look of a product or packaging, that consumers still recognize the brand and transfer their positive feelings toward the brand.
18Subliminal Perception Stimuli that are too weak or too brief to be consciously seen or heard may be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells.
19Aspects of PerceptionSelectionOrganizationInterpretation
20Aspects of PerceptionSelectionOrganizationInterpretation
21Perceptual SelectionConsumers subconsciously are selective as to what they perceive.Stimuli selected depends on two major factorsConsumers’ previous experienceConsumers’ motivesSelection depends on theNature of the stimulusExpectationsMotives
22Perceptual Selection Selection Depends Upon: Nature of the stimulusIncludes the product’s physical attributes, package design, brand name, advertising and more…ExpectationsBased on familiarity, previous experience or expectations.MotivesNeeds or wants for a product or service.Consumers are exposed to thousands, if not millions, of stimuli every day. The stimuli that they perceive depends on the three factors on this slide – nature of the stimulus, expectations, and motives. Think of the last time you went to the supermarket – what products did you notice? Why? Perhaps it was the nature of the stimulus, the packaging of the product. You might notice a sale on your favorite brand because you have positive expectations of how that brand performs. Finally, your motive in going to the supermarket might have been to purchase eggs and milk. This might lead you to notice promotions or point-of-purchase displays for these products.
23Why Are Consumers Likely to Notice This Ad? Chapter Six Slide
24The Attention-Getting Nature of a Dramatic Image
25Perceptual Selection Concepts Selective Exposure Selective AttentionPerceptual DefensePerceptual BlockingConsumers seek out messages which:Are pleasantThey can sympathizeReassure them of good purchases
26Perceptual Selection Concepts Selective Exposure Selective Attention Perceptual DefensePerceptual BlockingHeightened awareness when stimuli meet their needsConsumers prefer different messages and medium
27Perceptual Selection Concepts Selective Exposure Selective AttentionPerceptual DefensePerceptual BlockingScreening out of stimuli which are threatening
28Perceptual Selection Concepts Selective Exposure Selective Attention Perceptual DefensePerceptual BlockingConsumers avoid being bombarded by:Tuning out
29Aspects of PerceptionSelectionOrganizationInterpretation
30Organization Principles Figure and ground Grouping Closure People tend to organize perceptions into figure-and-ground relationships.The ground is usually hazy.Marketers usually design so the figure is the noticed stimuli.
31This billboard for Wrangler jeans makes creative use of the figure-ground principle.
32Lacoste’s campaign uses a very plain ground so the symbol really shows. weblink
33Organization Principles Figure and ground Grouping Closure People group stimuli to form a unified impression or concept.Grouping helps memory and recall.
34Organization Principles Figure and ground Grouping Closure People have a need for closure and organize perceptions to form a complete picture.Will often fill in missing piecesIncomplete messages remembered more than complete
35Aspects of PerceptionSelectionOrganizationInterpretation
36Interpretation Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First ImpressionsJumping to ConclusionsHalo EffectPositive attributes of people they know to those who resemble themImportant for model selectionAttractive models are more persuasive for some products
37Dove’s campaign stresses the everyday woman. weblink
38Interpretation Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First ImpressionsJumping to ConclusionsHalo EffectPeople hold meanings related to stimuliStereotypes influence how stimuli are perceived
39Interpretation Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First ImpressionsJumping to ConclusionsHalo EffectFirst impressions are lastingThe perceiver is trying to determine which stimuli are relevant, important, or predictive
40Interpretation Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First ImpressionsJumping to ConclusionsHalo EffectPeople tend not to listen to all the information before making conclusionImportant to put persuasive arguments first in advertising
41Interpretation Perceptual Distortion Physical Appearances Stereotypes First ImpressionsJumping to ConclusionsHalo EffectConsumers perceive and evaluate multiple objects based on just one dimensionUsed in licensing of namesImportant with spokesperson choice
42The halo effect helps Adidas break into new product categories.
43PositioningEstablishing a specific image for a brand in the consumer’s mindProduct is positioned in relation to competing brandsConveys the concept, or meaning, of the product in terms of how it fulfills a consumer needResult of successful positioning is a distinctive, positive brand image
44Positioning Techniques Umbrella PositioningPositioning against CompetitionPositioning Based on a Specific BenefitFinding an “Unowned” PositionFilling Several PositionsRepositioning
45How Can This Ad Affect the Service’s Perceived Quality?
46It Uses a Process Dimension in Advertising a Newly-Formed Business Class on an Airline
47Consumer ImageryConsumer try to preserve or enhance their pictures by buying products or brand that they believe are consistent and congruent with their self-imagePositioning of servicePerceived PricePerception of ColoursPerceived QualityPerceived Risk