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Chapter 2 Perception.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Perception."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Perception

2 “Perception is Reality”
Louis Cheskin

3 Are The Center Circles the Same Size?

4 Are the Purple Lines Bent or Straight?

5 A Sax Player or a Woman’s Face?

6 Sensation and Perception
Refers to the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, color, and sound. Perception Process by which these sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted. People only process a small amount of information (stimuli). An even smaller amount is attended to and given meaning.

7 The Perception Process
Sensation Exposure Attention Interpretation STIMULI or SENSORY INPUTS Meaning Response Perception

8 Sensory Systems Vision Smell Sound Touch Taste
Visual Elements in Advertising, Store Design and Packaging. Sound Odors Can Stir Emotions or Create Feelings Such as Happiness/ Hunger. Touch Research Has Analyzed Effects of : Background Music & Speaking Rates Taste Shown to Be a Factor in Sales Interactions. Ethnicity Affects Taste Preferences.

9 Exposure Degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors. Consumers: Concentrate on some stimuli, Are unaware of others, Even go out of their way to ignore some messages. Pychophysics - Science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world.

10 Sensory Thresholds Lowest Intensity of a Stimulus That Consumers are Capable of Perceiving: Absolute Threshold refers to the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel. Marketing Stimuli Differential Threshold refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli. (j.n.d.-Just Noticeable Difference & Weber’s Law)


12 Subliminal Perception
Occurs When The Stimulus Is Below The Level Of The Consumer’s Awareness. Embeds Tiny Figures in Print Advertising Subliminal Techniques Auditory Messages Messages on Sound Recordings Low-Level Auditory Stimulation Threshold Messaging

13 Does Subliminal Perception Work?
Threshold Differences Distance and Position Control Does Subliminal Perception Work? Influence of Subliminal Messages Viewing Attention Control Generalized Effect

14 Attention Refers to the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus. Consumers often suffer Sensory Overload, exposure to far more information than they are capable of or willing to process. Example: More than 6000 TV commercials are run each week.

15 Perceptual Selection How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To?
Experience Result of Acquiring Information Over Time Perceptual Selection Means that People Pay Attention to Only a Small Portion of Stimuli to Which They Are Exposed. How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To? Perceptual Filters Past Experiences Influences What We Decide to Process Perceptual Vigilance Perceptual Defense Adaptation

16 Factors Leading to Adaptation
Intensity Adaptation Relevance Duration Factors Leading to Adaptation Discrimination Exposure

17 Perceptual Selection Size Color Position Novelty
How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To? Stimulus Selection Factors Size Color Position Create Contrast so That Stimuli is More Likely to Be Noticed Remember Weber’s Law. Novelty

18 Interpretation Refers to the meaning that we assign to sensory stimuli. Consumers assign meaning to stimuli based on Schema, or set of beliefs, to which the stimuli is assigned. The schema will determine what criteria will be used to evaluate the: product, package, message.

19 Interpretation Semiotics: The Symbols Around Us
The study of how consumers interpret the meanings of symbols Object Sign Interpretant

20 Semiotics

21 Stimulus Organization
The Gestalt Perspective (Summarized as “The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of It’s Parts) Provides Several Principles Relating to the Way Stimuli Are Organized: Principle of Similarity Consumers Tend to Group Objects That Share Similar Physical Characteristics. Closure Principle People Tend to Perceive an Incomplete Picture as Whole. Figure-Ground Principle One Part of the Stimulus Will Dominate (the Figure) While Other Parts Recede Into the Backdrop (the Ground)

22 Perceptual Positioning
Quality Lifestyle Positioning Strategy Uses Elements of the Marketing Mix to Influence the Consumer’s Interpretation of It’s Meaning. Users Price Leadership Occasions Attributes Positioning Dimensions Competitors Product Class

23 Repositioning Current Brand is “Cannibalizing” Other Brands in Product Line. Repositioning Occurs When a Brand’s Original Market Position is Modified Because: Too Many Competitors Are Stressing the Same Attribute. Original Market Evaporates or Is Unreceptive to the Offering.

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