6Sensation and Perception Refers to the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, color, and sound.PerceptionProcess by which these sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.People only process a small amount of information (stimuli).An even smaller amount is attended to and given meaning.
7The Perception Process SensationExposureAttentionInterpretationSTIMULI or SENSORY INPUTSMeaningResponsePerception
8Sensory Systems Vision Smell Sound Touch Taste Visual Elements in Advertising,Store Design and Packaging.SoundOdors Can Stir Emotions or CreateFeelings Such as Happiness/ Hunger.TouchResearch Has Analyzed Effects of : Background Music & Speaking RatesTasteShown to Be a Factor in Sales Interactions.Ethnicity Affects Taste Preferences.
9ExposureDegree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors.Consumers:Concentrate on some stimuli,Are unaware of others,Even go out of their way to ignore some messages.Pychophysics - Science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world.
10Sensory ThresholdsLowest Intensity of a Stimulus That Consumers are Capable of Perceiving:Absolute Threshold refers to the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel.Marketing StimuliDifferential Threshold refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli. (j.n.d.-Just Noticeable Difference & Weber’s Law)
12Subliminal Perception Occurs When The Stimulus Is Below The Level Of The Consumer’s Awareness.EmbedsTiny Figures in PrintAdvertisingSubliminal TechniquesAuditory MessagesMessages on SoundRecordingsLow-Level Auditory StimulationThreshold Messaging
14AttentionRefers to the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus.Consumers often suffer Sensory Overload, exposure to far more information than they are capable of or willing to process.Example: More than 6000 TV commercials are run each week.
15Perceptual Selection How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To? ExperienceResult of Acquiring Information Over TimePerceptual Selection Means that People Pay Attention to Only a Small Portion of Stimuli to Which They Are Exposed.How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To?Perceptual FiltersPast Experiences Influences What We Decide to ProcessPerceptualVigilancePerceptualDefenseAdaptation
16Factors Leading to Adaptation IntensityAdaptationRelevanceDurationFactors Leading to AdaptationDiscriminationExposure
17Perceptual Selection Size Color Position Novelty How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To?Stimulus Selection FactorsSizeColorPositionCreate Contrast so That Stimuli is More Likely to Be Noticed Remember Weber’s Law.Novelty
18InterpretationRefers to the meaning that we assign to sensory stimuli.Consumers assign meaning to stimuli based on Schema, or set of beliefs, to which the stimuli is assigned.The schema will determine what criteria will be used to evaluate the:product,package,message.
19Interpretation Semiotics: The Symbols Around Us The study of how consumers interpret the meanings of symbolsObjectSignInterpretant
21Stimulus Organization The Gestalt Perspective (Summarized as “The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of It’s Parts) Provides Several Principles Relating to the Way Stimuli Are Organized:Principle of SimilarityConsumers Tend to GroupObjects That Share SimilarPhysicalCharacteristics.Closure Principle People Tend to Perceive an Incomplete Picture as Whole.Figure-Ground PrincipleOne Part of the Stimulus WillDominate (the Figure) WhileOther Parts Recede Intothe Backdrop(the Ground)
22Perceptual Positioning QualityLifestylePositioning Strategy Uses Elements of the Marketing Mix to Influence the Consumer’s Interpretation of It’s Meaning.UsersPrice LeadershipOccasionsAttributesPositioning DimensionsCompetitorsProduct Class
23RepositioningCurrent Brand is “Cannibalizing”Other Brands in Product Line.Repositioning Occurs When a Brand’s Original Market Position is Modified Because:Too Many Competitors AreStressing the Same Attribute.Original Market Evaporates orIs Unreceptive to the Offering.