Presentation on theme: "Perception The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world Elements."— Presentation transcript:
1 PerceptionThe process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the worldElements of PerceptionSensationExposureAttention
2 SensationSensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuliA stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses.The absolute threshold is the lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation.
3 Differential Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference – j.n.d.) Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuliWeber’s lawThe j.n.d. between two stimuli is not an absolute amount but an amount relative to the intensity of the first stimulusThe stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.
4 Subliminal Perception Stimuli that are too weak or too brief to be consciously seen or heardThey may be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells.
5 Aspects of PerceptionSelectionOrganizationInterpretation
6 Perceptual Selection Selection Depends Upon: Nature of the stimulus Includes the product’s physical attributes, package design, brand name, advertising and more…ExpectationsBased on familiarity, previous experience or expectations.MotivesNeeds or wants for a product or service.
7 Perceptual Selection Important Concepts Selective ExposureConsumers seek out messages which:Are pleasantThey can sympathizeReassure them of good purchasesSelective AttentionHeightened awareness when stimuli meet their needsConsumers prefer different messages and mediumPerceptual DefenseScreening out of stimuli which are threateningPerceptual BlockingConsumers avoid being bombarded by:Tuning outTiVo
8 Organization Principles People tend to organize perceptions into figure-and-ground relationships.The ground is usually hazy.Marketers usually design so the figure is the noticed stimuli.Figure and groundGroupingClosure
9 Organization Principles Figure and ground Grouping Closure People group stimuli to form a unified impression or concept.Grouping helps memory and recall.
10 Organization Principles People have a need for closure and organize perceptions to form a complete picture.Will often fill in missing piecesIncomplete messages remembered more than completeFigure and groundGroupingClosure
11 Interpretation People hold meanings related to stimuli Stereotypes Physical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo Effect
12 InterpretationStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectPositive attributes of people they know to those who resemble themImportant for model selection
14 Interpretation First impressions are lasting StereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectFirst impressions are lastingThe perceiver is trying to determine which stimuli are relevant, important, or predictive
15 InterpretationStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectStereotypesPhysical AppearancesDescriptive TermsFirst ImpressionsHalo EffectConsumers perceive and evaluate multiple objects based on just one dimension
16 Product PositioningEstablishing a specific image for a brand in the consumer’s mind in relation to competing brandsConveys the product in terms of how it fulfills a needSuccessful positioning creates a distinctive, positive brand imageIt is important to realize that good position defines the product in a unique place in the consumer’s mind when compared to competing products. This place is the result of the benefits that are offered by the product and how they are different or better than those of the competitor’s products.
17 Packaging as a Positioning Element Packaging conveys the image that the brand communicates to the buyer.Color, weight, image, and shape are all important.Repositioning might be necessary because:Increased competitionChanging consumer tastesA consumer often derives their understanding of a product and its benefits from the packaging. A good example would be shampoo. The shape of the bottle, the choice of colors and symbols, and even the cap can help the consumer position the product and determine if the product’s benefits are gentle, color safe, strong cleaning, or conditioning.Many marketers will need to reposition their product over time due to either market changes or consumer preference changes. This is often challenging to marketers, especially if their product had been perceived negatively in the marketplace.
18 Perceptual MappingAn analytical technique that enables marketers to plot graphically consumers’ perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brandsPerceptual mapping helps the marketer visualize how their product is positioned in the consumer’s mind. It is a graph of products within a category based on two major benefits or attributes. It allows them to see gaps in the positioning of all the products and identify areas for new products.
19 Perceived RiskThe degree of uncertainty perceived by the consumer as to the consequences (outcome) of a specific purchase decisionTypesFunctional RiskPhysical RiskFinancial RiskSocial RiskPsychological RiskTime RiskConsumer purchase decisions are determined by the degree of risk that consumers perceive, and their tolerance for risk. The major types of risk are listed in this slide. The first, functional risk, deals with the risk that the product will not perform as expected. Physical risk is the risk to self and others. Financial risk is that the product will not be worth its cost and social risk is that the choice of the product might lead to social embarrassment. Psychological risk is that a poor product choice will hurt the consumer's ego and time risk is that the time has been wasted in purchasing this product.
20 How Consumers Handle Risk Seek InformationStay Brand LoyalSelect by Brand ImageRely on Store ImageBuy the Most Expensive ModelSeek ReassuranceHow consumers handle risk will differ by their own individual strategy. That being said, there are a handful of strategies that people tend to use when dealing with risk. The first of these is to seek information so that they have more knowledge when they purchase. Consumers can also stay brand loyal, thereby avoiding risk by sticking with a known product. Consumers can select by brand image to reduce their risk because they may already know and trust the brand, perhaps from buying a different product by the same brand or company. Some consumers will rely on store image to help them reduce risk. Some customers buy the most expensive model assuming that the price/quality relationship will safely deliver them the best product. Finally, consumers seek reassurance through money-back guarantees, warranties, seals of approval and free trials.