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1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4 2 Comprehension, Memory, and Cognitive Learning

2 2 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 Learning Outcomes Identify the factors that influence consumer comprehension. Explain how knowledge, meaning, and value are inseparable using the multiple stores memory theory. Understand how the mental associations that consumers develop are a key to learning. Use the concept of associative networks to map relevant consumer knowledge. Apply the cognitive schema concept in understanding how consumers react to products, brands, and marketing agents. LO 4-1 LO 4-2 LO 4-3 LO 4-4 LO 4-5

3 3 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LO 4-1 From Chapter 3

4 4 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4 Comprehension The interpretation or understanding that a consumer develops about some attended stimulus in order to assign meaning

5 5 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Comprehension ▮ Internal factors within the consumer powerfully influence the comprehension process ▮ Comprehension includes both cognitive (thought) and affective (feeling) elements ▮ Consumer comprehension is not always “correct”

6 6 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6 Factors Affecting Consumer Comprehension The Basic Communications Model  Source/Sender  Encoding  Message/Media  Decoding  Receiver  And????

7 7 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8 8 8 Characteristics of the Message ▮ Physical characteristics - The elements of a message that one senses directly Intensity Color Font Numbers Spacing Shape

9 9 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 9 Characteristics of the Message ▮ Simplicity–complexity - The simpler the message, the more likely a consumer develops meaningful comprehension Relies on a consumer’s ability to process information

10 10 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Simplicity/Complexity Simple phrases such as “fat free” often communicate more clearly than detailed information. ©JAMES F. QUINN/CHICAGO TRIBUNE

11 11 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Characteristics of the Message ▮ Message congruity - Represents the extent to which a message is internally consistent and fits surrounding information Not always true that congruent content leads to improved comprehension

12 12 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

13 13 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 Characteristics of the Message ▮ Figure - The focal image, or the object intended to capture a person’s attention ▮ Ground - In a message, everything besides the figure should be less important and simply represent the (back)ground

14 14 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Figure and Ground Distinction

15 15 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15 Characteristics of the Message ▮ Message source - Can influence comprehension ▮ Source influences comprehension to varying degrees based upon: Likeability Attractiveness Expertise Trustworthiness

16 16 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16 Message Receiver Characteristics ▮ Intelligence/Ability ▮ Prior knowledge ▮ Involvement ▮ Familiarity/habituation - The process by which continuous exposure to a stimulus affects the comprehension of and response to some stimulus

17 17 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Habituation It’s strange looking, but you’ll get used to it!

18 18 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 18 Message Receiver Characteristics ▮ Expectations - Beliefs of what will happen in a future situation ▮ Physical limits ▮ Brain dominance - The phenomena of hemispheric lateralization Left brain? Right brain?

19 19 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19 Environmental Characteristics ▮ Information intensity - The amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment ▮ Framing - A phenomenon in which the meaning of something is influenced (perceived differently) by the information environment (Glass half full/half empty?) ▮ Timing - Both the amount of time a consumer has to process a message and the point in time at which the consumer receives the message

20 20 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part Multiple Store Theory of Memory Memory: the psychological process by which knowledge is recorded. Views the memory process as utilizing three different storage areas within the human brain. Memory: the psychological process by which knowledge is recorded. Views the memory process as utilizing three different storage areas within the human brain.

21 21 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

22 22 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 22 Sensory Memory ▮ The area in memory where the things that we encounter with any of the five human senses are stored. Preattentive – consumer has not yet allocated attention to sensations. Unlimited capacity. Storage methods:  Iconic storage – visual information  Echoic storage – auditory information Short duration and perishable.

23 23 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Workbench Memory (ST) This is where bits of information are worked on to create knowledge ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/DAVE WHITE

24 24 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 24 Workbench Memory (ST Memory) ▮ Information is stored and encoded for placement in long-term memory, and eventually, retrieved for future use. Encoding – process by which information is transferred from workbench memory to long-term memory for permanent storage. Retrieval – process by which information is transferred back into workbench memory. ▮ Limited capacity and duration. ▮ Capacity depends on consumer’s involvement.

25 25 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Mental Processes Assisting Learning Repetition Dual Coding Meaningful Encoding Chunking These rely on making associations.

26 26 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 26 Mental Processes Assisting Learning ▮ Repetition - A process in which a thought is held in short-term memory by mentally repeating the thought ▮ Dual coding - A process in which two different sensory “traces” are available to remember something

27 27 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 27 Mental Processes Assisting Learning ▮ Meaningful encoding - A process that occurs when preexisting knowledge is used to assist in storing new information ▮ Chunking - A process of grouping stimuli by meaning so that multiple stimuli can become a single memory unit

28 28 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 28 Long-Term Memory ▮ A repository for all information that a person has encountered Represents permanent information storage Memory trace - Mental path by which some thought becomes active Rumination - Unintentional but recurrent memory of long-ago events (remembering a memory positively or negatively)  These thoughts frequently include consumption related activities

29 29 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 29 Elaboration ▮ Extent to which one continues processing a message even after he/she develops an initial understanding in the comprehension stage ▮ Personal elaboration - A person imagines himself or herself associating with a stimulus being processed Provides the deepest comprehension and greatest chance of accurate recall

30 30 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 30 Associative Network A network of mental pathways linking knowledge within memory Family tree, spider web

31 31 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

32 32 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 32 Declarative Knowledge ▮ Refers to cognitive components that represent facts ▮ Represented in an associative network when two nodes are linked by a path Nodes - Represent concepts in the network Paths - Show the association between nodes in the network

33 33 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 33 Cognitive Schemas ▮ Schema - A type of associative network that works as a cognitive representation of a phenomenon that provides meaning to that entity ▮ Exemplar - A concept within a schema that is the single best representative of some category

34 34 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

35 35 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 35 Script, Episodic Memory, and Social Schemata ▮ Script - A schema representing an event ▮ Episodic memory - To the memory for past events, or episodes, in one’s life (Remember playing cowboy??) ▮ Social schema - Cognitive representation that gives a specific type of person meaning Social stereotype


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