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3-1 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 3 Learning and Memory CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon.

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Presentation on theme: "3-1 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 3 Learning and Memory CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon."— Presentation transcript:

1 3-1 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 3 Learning and Memory CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon

2 3-2 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: It’s important for marketers to understand how consumers learn about products and services. Conditioning results in learning. Learned associations can generalize to other things and why this is important to marketers.

3 3-3 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives (continued) When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: There is a difference between classical and instrumental conditioning. We learn by observing others’ behavior. Memory systems work.

4 3-4 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives (continued) When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: The other products we associate with an individual product influences how we will remember it. Products help us to retrieve memories from our past. Marketers measure our memories about products and ads.

5 3-5 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Learning Process Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Incidental learning: casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge

6 3-6 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Behavioral Learning Theories Behavioral learning theories: assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.

7 3-7 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Behavioral Learning Theories Classical conditioning: a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Instrumental conditioning (also, operant conditioning): the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes.

8 3-8 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov rang bell and put meat powder into dogs’ mouths; repeated until dogs salivated when the bell rang Meat powder = UCS (natural reaction is drooling) Bell = CS (dogs learned to drool when bell rang) Drooling = CR

9 3-9 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Marketing Applications of Repetition Repetition increases learning More exposures = increased brand awareness When exposure decreases, extinction occurs However, too MUCH exposure leads to advertising wear out Example: Izod crocodile on clothes

10 3-10 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Marketing Applications of Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization: tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar, unconditioned responses. Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging

11 3-11 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Some advertisers use well-known songs to promote their products. They often pay more for the song than for original compositions. How do you react when one of your favorite songs turns up in a commercial? Why do advertisers do this? How does this relate to learning theory? If you worked for an ad agency, how would you select songs for your clients?

12 3-12 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Instrumental Conditioning Behaviors = positive outcomes or negative outcomes Instrumental conditions occurs in one of these ways: Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction

13 3-13 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 3.2 Instrumental Conditioning

14 3-14 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Reinforcement Schedules in Instrumental Conditioning Fixed-interval (seasonal sales) Variable-interval (secret shoppers) Fixed-ratio (grocery-shopping receipt programs) Variable-ratio (slot machines)

15 3-15 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Cognitive Learning Theories: Observational Learning We watch others; we model behavior Conditions for modeling to occur: The consumer’s attention must be directed to the appropriate model The consumer must remember what the model does and says The consumer must convert information to action The consumer must be motivated to perform actions

16 3-16 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 3.3 The Observational Learning Process Modeling: imitating others’ behavior

17 3-17 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Role of Memory in Learning Memory: acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed. Information-processing approach; Figure 3.4 Mind = computer and data = input/output

18 3-18 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How Information Gets Encoded Encode: mentally program meaning Types of meaning: Sensory meaning, such as the literal color or shape of a package Semantic meaning: symbolic associations Episodic memories: relate to events that are personally relevant Narrative: memories store information we acquire in story form

19 3-19 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 3.5 The Memory Process

20 3-20 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 3.6 An Associative Networks for Perfumes

21 3-21 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Spreading Activation As one node is activated, other nodes associated with it also begin to be triggered Meaning types of associated nodes: Brand-specific Ad-specific Brand identification Product category Evaluative reactions

22 3-22 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Levels of Knowledge Individual nodes = meaning concepts Two (or more) connected nodes = proposition (complex meaning) Two or more propositions = schema We encode info that is consistent with an existing schema more readily Service scripts

23 3-23 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Retrieval for Purchase Decisions Retrieving information often requires appropriate factors and cues: Physiological factors Situational factors Consumer attention; pioneering brand; descriptive brand names Viewing environment (continuous activity; commercial order in sequence) Post experience advertising effects

24 3-24 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What Makes Us Forget? Appropriate factors/cues for retrieval: State-dependent retrieval/ mood congruence effect Familiarity Salience/von Restorff effect Visual memory versus verbal memory

25 3-25 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli Recognition versus recall Problems with memory measures Response biases Memory lapses Omitting Averaging Telescoping Illusion of truth effect

26 3-26 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Marketing Power of Nostalgia Marketers may resurrect popular characters to evoke fond memories of the past Nostalgia Retro brand

27 3-27 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion What “retro brands” are targeted to you? Were these brands that were once used by your parents? What newer brands focus on nostalgia, even though they never existed before?

28 3-28 4/28/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary Marketers need to know how consumers learn in order to develop effective messages. Conditioning results in learning and learned associations can generalize to other things. Learning can be accomplished through classical and instrumental conditioning and through observing the behavior of others. We use memory systems to store and retrieve information.


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