2PerceptionPerception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets the information he or she receives from the environment.Perceptual defenses lead to:Selective exposureSelective AttentionSelective InterpretationSelective Retention (Memory)
3Information Processing for Consumer Decision Making ExposureRandom DeliberateAttentionLow High-involvement involvementInterpretationShort-term Memory Long-termActive problem Stored experiences, solving values, decisions, rules, feelingsPurchase and consumption decisionsPerceptionThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
4Selective ExposureMost of the stimuli to which individuals are exposed are self-selected.Non-exposure may be random or deliberate.Selective exposure includes:ZippingZappingMuting
5Selective AttentionSelective attention occurs when a consumer does or does not notice a marketing stimulus.Stimulus factors influencing attention:Size and intensityColor and movementPosition and isolationFormatContrastInformation quantity
6The Impact of Size on Advertising Readership* One-page ads have almost twice the impact of fractional-page adsMean noted scoresBased on an analysis of 85,000 ads.Source: Cahners Advertising Research Report 110.1B (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated).
7Color and Size Impact on Attention **Readership of a 1-page black-and-white ad was set at 100.Source: “How Important is Color to an Ad?”Starch Tested Copy, February 1989, p.1.
8Selective Attention Individual factors influencing attention: Interest or needAbility to attend to informationSituational factors influencing attention:Environment itselfProgram involvementNon-focused AttentionHemispheric lateralizationSubliminal stimuli
9Involvement with a Magazine and Advertising Effectiveness Source: Cahners Advertising Research Report (Boston: Cahners Publishing Co.).
10Selective Interpretation Interpretation is assigning meaning to stimuli.Cognitive interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to stimuli based on existing categories.Semantic meaningPsychological meaningAffective interpretation is the emotional response triggered by a stimulus.Perceptual distortion occurs when a consumer assigns meaning that is congruent with his or her prior beliefs than it objectively is.
11Selective Interpretation Individual characteristics influencing interpretation:Learning processesExpectationsSituational characteristics influence interpretation.Stimulus characteristics influence interpretation.Semiotics is the study of how meaning is created, maintained, and altered.Sensory discrimination is the ability of a person to distinguish between similar stimuli - Weber’s Law.
12Perception & Marketing Strategy Retail StrategyBrand Name & Logo DevelopmentMedia StrategyAdvertisement & Package Design
13Evaluation of Advertising Measures of ExposureCirculation and pass-along readershipPeople metersMeasures of AttentionPhysiological measuresRecall and Recognition testsMeasures of InterpretationFocus group tests
14Carol reads the travel section of the newspaper every day Carol reads the travel section of the newspaper every day. Dave, however, is not planning a trip so he skips the travel section. Dave has engaged in:selective exposureselective attentionselective interpretationselective retention
15A number of years ago, M&M/Mars successfully reduced the size of its candy bars by keeping the size change small. This was in response to rising costs and the firm’s desire not to raise the price of the candy bars. This illustrates which perceptual concept:ZippingZappingHemispheric lateralizationWeber’s lawSemiotics