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Chapter 8 Perception.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Perception."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Perception

2 Perception Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets the information he or she receives from the environment. Perceptual defenses lead to: Selective exposure Selective Attention Selective Interpretation Selective Retention (Memory)

3 Information Processing for Consumer Decision Making
Exposure Random Deliberate Attention Low High- involvement involvement Interpretation Short-term Memory Long-term Active problem Stored experiences, solving values, decisions, rules, feelings Purchase and consumption decisions Perception The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

4 Selective Exposure Most of the stimuli to which individuals are exposed are self-selected. Non-exposure may be random or deliberate. Selective exposure includes: Zipping Zapping Muting

5 Selective Attention Selective attention occurs when a consumer does or does not notice a marketing stimulus. Stimulus factors influencing attention: Size and intensity Color and movement Position and isolation Format Contrast Information quantity

6 The Impact of Size on Advertising Readership*
One-page ads have almost twice the impact of fractional-page ads Mean noted scores Based on an analysis of 85,000 ads. Source: Cahners Advertising Research Report 110.1B (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated).

7 Color and Size Impact on Attention
* *Readership of a 1-page black-and-white ad was set at 100. Source: “How Important is Color to an Ad?”Starch Tested Copy, February 1989, p.1.

8 Selective Attention Individual factors influencing attention:
Interest or need Ability to attend to information Situational factors influencing attention: Environment itself Program involvement Non-focused Attention Hemispheric lateralization Subliminal stimuli

9 Involvement with a Magazine and Advertising Effectiveness
Source: Cahners Advertising Research Report (Boston: Cahners Publishing Co.).

10 Selective Interpretation
Interpretation is assigning meaning to stimuli. Cognitive interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to stimuli based on existing categories. Semantic meaning Psychological meaning Affective interpretation is the emotional response triggered by a stimulus. Perceptual distortion occurs when a consumer assigns meaning that is congruent with his or her prior beliefs than it objectively is.

11 Selective Interpretation
Individual characteristics influencing interpretation: Learning processes Expectations Situational characteristics influence interpretation. Stimulus characteristics influence interpretation. Semiotics is the study of how meaning is created, maintained, and altered. Sensory discrimination is the ability of a person to distinguish between similar stimuli - Weber’s Law.

12 Perception & Marketing Strategy
Retail Strategy Brand Name & Logo Development Media Strategy Advertisement & Package Design

13 Evaluation of Advertising
Measures of Exposure Circulation and pass-along readership People meters Measures of Attention Physiological measures Recall and Recognition tests Measures of Interpretation Focus group tests

14 Carol reads the travel section of the newspaper every day
Carol reads the travel section of the newspaper every day. Dave, however, is not planning a trip so he skips the travel section. Dave has engaged in: selective exposure selective attention selective interpretation selective retention

15 A number of years ago, M&M/Mars successfully reduced the size of its candy bars by keeping the size change small. This was in response to rising costs and the firm’s desire not to raise the price of the candy bars. This illustrates which perceptual concept: Zipping Zapping Hemispheric lateralization Weber’s law Semiotics

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