Presentation on theme: "Poultry Nutrition and Feed Ingredients What and Why"— Presentation transcript:
1Poultry Nutrition and Feed Ingredients What and Why Dr. Park WaldroupNovus International Distinguished ProfessorNCIFAP Feb , 2007Fayetteville AR
2Nutrient requirements of chickens are well known Easy animal to studySmall numbers neededFast growth rate and short life spanClose relationship between poultry scientists and the poultry industry has meant rapid transfer of knowledge
3Request for new feedTransfer of research results to industry implementation has been extremely rapid in the poultry industry
4Basic Approach to Feed Formulation Establish nutrient specifications to be metDetermine ingredients available for useEstablish limitations on ingredient usageQuantity availablePhysical factorsAntinutritive factorsBlend ingredients under the limitations imposed to provide required nutrients for optimal economic performance
9Ten key nutrients must be considered Metabolizable energy1400 kcalArginine1.25 %Lysine1.20 %Methionine0.50 %Methionine + cystine0.90 %Threonine0.80 %Tryptophan0.20 %Calcium1.00 %Phosphorus0.45%Sodium
10Who sets the standards for poultry feeds? In many countries, feed is sold to farmers. In most of these countries a government agency sets minimum nutrient standards that are designed to “protect” the farmer and are usually much higher than the bird needs.In an integrated system feed is not “sold” and the company sets its own standards regarding nutrient level and ingredient quality.
11Variation in Nutrient Content of Broiler Starter Diets Among 160 Poultry Complexes LOWMEANHIGHME KCAL/LB131113941435CP/140020.7722.8725.00LYS/14001.201.321.48TSAA/14000.891.011.12
12What do chickens need in their diet? Well balanced protein source.Grains, grain byproducts, and fat or oil for energy.A source of digestible phosphorus free from contaminants such as Fl or Va.Essential minerals such as Ca and Na along with many trace minerals.Essential vitamins from natural ingredients or from chemical synthesis.
13Relative energy value of major grains and grain byproducts for poultry
14U.S. Cereal grain usage (2002) Cereal grain usage for various purposes (2002)U.S. Cereal grain usage (2002)Amount used (million bushels)FoodAlcoholIndustrialSeedFeedCorn2,026205,864Sorghum221230Barley164888Oats5913148Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS
15U.S. Corn used for ethanol production (millions of bushels) U.S. Ethanol Production (millions of gallons)
16Major Protein Sources for Poultry Plant proteins% CPSoybean meal47.5Canola meal34.8Cottonseed meal41.0Sunflower meal36.8Peanut meal49.0Animal proteins% CPMeat-bone meal51.6Fish meal50-70Poultry byproduct59.5Feather meal82.0
17Processed feeds and quantity fed in U.S. (2002) 1,000 metric tonsSoybean meal30,007Cottonseed meal2,441Linseed meal149Peanut meal155Sunflower meal232Canola meal1,236Tankage and meat meal1,740Fish meal and solubles223Milk products281Corn gluten feed and meal2,525Wheat millfeeds6,159Rice millfeeds625Miscellaneous byproduct feeds1,521Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS
18Supplemental ingredients Inedible fats from rendering, vegetable oil processing, restaurants and fast-food chains provide high energy for diets.Pure amino acid supplements enable the reduction in crude protein in the diet by providing a more balanced protein.MethionineLysineThreonineTryptophan
19Typical U.S. Broiler Diet IngredientLb/ tonYellow CornSoybean meal500.00Animal protein source100.00Inedible fat supplement65.00Defluorinated phosphate8.00Limestone10.00SaltVitamin premix2.00Trace mineral mix1.00Methionine supplement5.00Lysine supplement
20MAJOR FEED ADDITIVES Anticoccidial drugs Antibiotics for growth promotionAntibiotics for disease controlArsenicals for growth promotion and enhancement of anticoccidial drugsHORMONES ARE NOT FED!!!!!!!!!!!
21Feed Additive Usage in Poultry Feeds Survey of 112 poultry complexes NumberPercentNone1916.9Antibiotic alone4842.8Arsenical alone119.8Antibiotic + Arsenical3430.3Total Antibiotic usage8273.2Total arsenical usage4540.2Source: Agri-Stats, November 2006
22Nutrition and the Environment Poultry industry characterized by large numbers of animals in a concentrated area.Much of the poultry production is located in areas with poor agronomic propertiesResults in excess nutrients in broiler excreta for land application
25Nutrition and the Environment Phosphorus excretion can be reduced by use of phytase enzymes and more closely adhering to minimum phosphorus needs. About 80-85% of US broiler diets use phytaseNitrogen excretion can be reduced by greater supplementation with synthetic amino acids and blending protein sources. This is not without cost and may reduce performance.Excretion of trace minerals such as Zn or Cu can be reduced by more costly organic forms of these minerals.
26Biofuel production may significantly impact poultry feeding Increase in ethanol production will remove significant amount of corn from feed poolResidual DDGS have reduced energy value for broilers and poor protein qualityModifications to use more of the corn value for ethanol and biodiesel will further reduce DDGS valueIncrease in biodiesel will remove considerable amount of inedible fatsGlycerine byproduct has energy value similar to corn but much less energy than do fats and oils