Presentation on theme: "Poultry Nutrition and Feed Ingredients What and Why Dr. Park Waldroup Novus International Distinguished Professor NCIFAP Feb. 12-13, 2007 Fayetteville."— Presentation transcript:
Poultry Nutrition and Feed Ingredients What and Why Dr. Park Waldroup Novus International Distinguished Professor NCIFAP Feb , 2007 Fayetteville AR
Nutrient requirements of chickens are well known Easy animal to study Small numbers needed Fast growth rate and short life span Close relationship between poultry scientists and the poultry industry has meant rapid transfer of knowledge
Transfer of research results to industry implementation has been extremely rapid in the poultry industry
Basic Approach to Feed Formulation Establish nutrient specifications to be met Determine ingredients available for use Establish limitations on ingredient usage –Quantity available –Physical factors –Antinutritive factors Blend ingredients under the limitations imposed to provide required nutrients for optimal economic performance
Metabolizable energy1400 kcal Arginine1.25 % Lysine1.20 % Methionine0.50 % Methionine + cystine0.90 % Threonine0.80 % Tryptophan0.20 % Calcium1.00 % Phosphorus0.45% Sodium0.20 % Ten key nutrients must be considered
Who sets the standards for poultry feeds? In many countries, feed is sold to farmers. In most of these countries a government agency sets minimum nutrient standards that are designed to “protect” the farmer and are usually much higher than the bird needs. In an integrated system feed is not “sold” and the company sets its own standards regarding nutrient level and ingredient quality.
Variation in Nutrient Content of Broiler Starter Diets Among 160 Poultry Complexes LOWMEANHIGH ME KCAL/LB CP/ LYS/ TSAA/
What do chickens need in their diet? Well balanced protein source. Grains, grain byproducts, and fat or oil for energy. A source of digestible phosphorus free from contaminants such as Fl or Va. Essential minerals such as Ca and Na along with many trace minerals. Essential vitamins from natural ingredients or from chemical synthesis.
Relative energy value of major grains and grain byproducts for poultry
Amount used (million bushels) Food Alcohol Industrial SeedFeed Corn2,026205,864 Sorghum Barley Oats Cereal grain usage for various purposes (2002) Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS U.S. Cereal grain usage (2002)
U.S. Corn used for ethanol production (millions of bushels) U.S. Ethanol Production (millions of gallons)
Major Protein Sources for Poultry Plant proteins% CP Soybean meal47.5 Canola meal34.8 Cottonseed meal41.0 Sunflower meal36.8 Peanut meal49.0 Animal proteins% CP Meat-bone meal51.6 Fish meal50-70 Poultry byproduct59.5 Feather meal82.0
Processed feeds1,000 metric tons Soybean meal30,007 Cottonseed meal2,441 Linseed meal149 Peanut meal155 Sunflower meal232 Canola meal1,236 Tankage and meat meal1,740 Fish meal and solubles223 Milk products281 Corn gluten feed and meal2,525 Wheat millfeeds6,159 Rice millfeeds625 Miscellaneous byproduct feeds1,521 Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS Processed feeds and quantity fed in U.S. (2002)
Supplemental ingredients Inedible fats from rendering, vegetable oil processing, restaurants and fast-food chains provide high energy for diets. Pure amino acid supplements enable the reduction in crude protein in the diet by providing a more balanced protein. –Methionine –Lysine –Threonine –Tryptophan
Typical U.S. Broiler Diet IngredientLb/ ton Yellow Corn Soybean meal Animal protein source Inedible fat supplement65.00 Defluorinated phosphate8.00 Limestone10.00 Salt8.00 Vitamin premix2.00 Trace mineral mix1.00 Methionine supplement5.00 Lysine supplement1.00
MAJOR FEED ADDITIVES Anticoccidial drugs Antibiotics for growth promotion Antibiotics for disease control Arsenicals for growth promotion and enhancement of anticoccidial drugs HORMONES ARE NOT FED!!!!!!!!!!!
Feed Additive Usage in Poultry Feeds Survey of 112 poultry complexes AdditiveNumberPercent None Antibiotic alone Arsenical alone119.8 Antibiotic + Arsenical Total Antibiotic usage Total arsenical usage Source: Agri-Stats, November 2006
Nutrition and the Environment Poultry industry characterized by large numbers of animals in a concentrated area. Much of the poultry production is located in areas with poor agronomic properties Results in excess nutrients in broiler excreta for land application
Nutrition and the Environment Phosphorus excretion can be reduced by use of phytase enzymes and more closely adhering to minimum phosphorus needs. About 80-85% of US broiler diets use phytase Nitrogen excretion can be reduced by greater supplementation with synthetic amino acids and blending protein sources. This is not without cost and may reduce performance. Excretion of trace minerals such as Zn or Cu can be reduced by more costly organic forms of these minerals.
Biofuel production may significantly impact poultry feeding Increase in ethanol production will remove significant amount of corn from feed pool –Residual DDGS have reduced energy value for broilers and poor protein quality –Modifications to use more of the corn value for ethanol and biodiesel will further reduce DDGS value Increase in biodiesel will remove considerable amount of inedible fats –Glycerine byproduct has energy value similar to corn but much less energy than do fats and oils