Presentation on theme: "Introduction There are two main factors that determine whether a person is profitable in the swine industry 1. # of pigs weaned per sow per year 2. feed."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction There are two main factors that determine whether a person is profitable in the swine industry 1. # of pigs weaned per sow per year 2. feed efficiency Large corporate farms currently wean an average of pigs per female per year.
How many? Females should be bred and managed to produce a minimum of 2.3 liters per year.
Selecting Feeds for Swine Feed costs range from 55-70% of the total cost of raising hogs. Combining the right kinds of feed in a well-balanced ration is one of the most important tasks of a hog producer. The nutrient needs of hogs include energy, protein, minerals, vitamins, and water.
Energy Feeds Corn is the basic energy feed used in hog rations. It is high in digestible carbohydrates, low in fiber, and palatable. Corn is about 8.8% protein.
Energy Feeds Barley- good substitute for corn. Has a higher fiber content so is less digestible than corn, but more protein Like corn lacks some of the essential amino acids and should be supplemented with a protein supplement. Not quite as palatable
Energy Feeds Oats- more protein than corn, but poorer quality protein. High fiber content. Potatoes- most carbs, heavier hogs make better use, take 4X as much potatoes as corn to equal the same feed value Bakery Wastes- include stale bread, crumbs, cookies, crackers; average 10% protein
Plant Proteins Soybean oil meal % protein content, excellent quality of protein, most widely used protein source for hogs, is very palatable to hogs Whole soybeans- about 37% protein, higher in energy and lower in protein than oil meal, cannot feed raw soybeans to hogs due enzyme reactions
Animal Proteins Tankage & Meat Scraps % protein, high content of calcium and phosphorous, not near as palatable as soybean meal Meat & Bone Meal- 50% protein, amount of bone contained in the mix determines the feeding value Fish Meal % protein, excellent quality, high in minerals and vitamins and is very palatable, but expensive
Minerals Four major minerals and six trace minerals are frequently added to hog rations. Major: calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and chlorine Trace: zinc, iron, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine Trace minerals are often found in commercial protein supplements or trace-mineralized salts
Vitamins Many of the vitamins required by hogs are already present in the feeds used in hog rations Vitamins that must be added to the ration are: A, D, E, K, riboflavin, niacin, panothenic acid, choline, and vitamin B12.
Water Most important nutrient in all animals diet. Should be available at all times. Should be fresh, clean, and no colder than 45 F Should be checked periodically for nitrate content Average sow = 3.5 gallons/day
Additives Increase efficiency in hog production. Enable pigs to grow at a faster rate, improve feed conversion, and reduce disease stress Feed tag instructions must be carefully followed in the use of additives. Withdrawal times must be observed when marketing hogs.