2 IntroductionThere are two main factors that determine whether a person is profitable in the swine industry1. # of pigs weaned per sow per year2. feed efficiencyLarge corporate farms currently wean an average of pigs per female per year.
3 How many?Females should be bred and managed to produce a minimum of 2.3 liters per year.
4 Selecting Feeds for Swine Feed costs range from 55-70% of the total cost of raising hogs.Combining the right kinds of feed in a well-balanced ration is one of the most important tasks of a hog producer.The nutrient needs of hogs include energy, protein, minerals, vitamins, and water.
5 Energy Feeds Corn is the basic energy feed used in hog rations. It is high in digestible carbohydrates, low in fiber, and palatable.Corn is about 8.8% protein.
6 Energy Feeds Barley- good substitute for corn. Has a higher fiber content so is less digestible than corn, but more proteinLike corn lacks some of the essential amino acids and should be supplemented with a protein supplement.Not quite as palatable
7 Energy FeedsOats- more protein than corn, but poorer quality protein. High fiber content.Potatoes- most carbs, heavier hogs make better use, take 4X as much potatoes as corn to equal the same feed valueBakery Wastes- include stale bread, crumbs, cookies, crackers; average 10% protein
8 Plant ProteinsSoybean oil meal % protein content, excellent quality of protein, most widely used protein source for hogs, is very palatable to hogsWhole soybeans- about 37% protein, higher in energy and lower in protein than oil meal, cannot feed raw soybeans to hogs due enzyme reactions
9 Animal ProteinsTankage & Meat Scraps % protein, high content of calcium and phosphorous, not near as palatable as soybean mealMeat & Bone Meal- 50% protein, amount of bone contained in the mix determines the feeding valueFish Meal % protein, excellent quality, high in minerals and vitamins and is very palatable, but expensive
10 MineralsFour major minerals and six trace minerals are frequently added to hog rations.Major: calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and chlorineTrace: zinc, iron, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodineTrace minerals are often found in commercial protein supplements or trace-mineralized salts
11 VitaminsMany of the vitamins required by hogs are already present in the feeds used in hog rationsVitamins that must be added to the ration are: A, D, E, K, riboflavin, niacin, panothenic acid, choline, and vitamin B12.
12 Water Most important nutrient in all animals diet. Should be available at all times.Should be fresh, clean, and no colder than 45 FShould be checked periodically for nitrate contentAverage sow = 3.5 gallons/day
13 Additives Increase efficiency in hog production. Enable pigs to grow at a faster rate, improve feed conversion, and reduce disease stressFeed tag instructions must be carefully followed in the use of additives. Withdrawal times must be observed when marketing hogs.