Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Poultry Nutrition and Feeding ارائه از وبلاگ:

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Poultry Nutrition and Feeding ارائه از وبلاگ:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Poultry Nutrition and Feeding ارائه از وبلاگ:

2 Nutrients Carbohydrates and Fats (Energy) Protein and Amino acids Minerals Vitamins Water

3 Carbohydrates and Fats (Energy) Carbohydrates Sugar, starches Indigestible fiber (cellulose) not used Energy is needed for Muscular activity, movement, and keeping warm Biochemical energy for maintenance and growth of tissue Glucose is metabolized and energy (ATP) is released Energy expressed as calories Most of feed intake is for calories (about 80% of the diet) Fats help make cell membranes

4 Energy Sources Cereal Grains Corn (maize): worlds most important feed grain Wheat Barley, oats Sorghums (milo): tannins Millet (pearl millet, foxtail millet, proso millet) Rice

5 Alternative Energy Sources Cereals and milling by-products Wheat middlings Rice screenings Roots and tubers Cassava (manioc) roots, sweet potatoes, taro, yams Fruits and by-products Banana and plantain, breadfruit, dates Miscellaneous Molasses (by-product of sugar cane industry) Fats (palm oil, coconut oil, animal fats)

6 Protein Muscle tissue (meat) is protein Amino acids Building blocks of protein; protein synthesis Essential amino acids Cant be made by chicken Must be in the diet About 20% of diet needs to be protein

7 Protein sources Legumes Soybeans or soybean meal (cooked or heat-treated) Peanut meal Sunflower, safflower, sesame meals Field peas, beans (navy, lima, fava)

8 Popular Feed Combination Grains Low in lysine; high in methionine Legumes High in lysine, low in methionine Corn/soybean diet is most common Synthetic amino acids Methionine and lysine often limiting

9 Alternative Protein Sources Cottonseed meal Coconut meal, palm kernel meal Milling by-products Corn gluten meal Brewers and distillers by-products

10 Animal Protein Meals Fishmeal Meat and bone meal Blood and offal Milk, buttermilk and dairy by-products (whey)

11 Minerals Part of body: Bone Egg shell Electrolytes function in fluid balance to maintain concentration gradients Only about 3-4% of diet Macro-Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Potassium Chlorine Magnesium Sulfur

12 Calcium and phosphorus must be balanced 2 parts calcium : 1 part available phosphorus Macro-Mineral Sources: Limestone or oyster shell Bone meal Salt

13 Micromineral (trace minerals) Function as activators or cofactors of enzymes Iron Iodine Zinc Manganese Copper Selenium Molybdenum Chromium Source: Wood ashes may provide trace minerals for scavenging poultry

14 Vitamins Co-factors of enzymes to catalyze reactions in the body Less than 1% of the diet Water-soluble Vitamins (rapidly excreted) Vitamin C B-Complex Vitamins Thiamin B 1 Pantothenic acid Riboflavin B 2 Niacin Pyridoxine B 6 Folic acid Cyanocobalamin B 12 Biotin Choline Fat-soluble Vitamins (can be stored in fatty tissue) Vitamin AVitamin E Vitamin DVitamin K

15 Vitamin Sources Premix Yeast (B-complex vitamins ) Green fodder (B-complex vitamins, vitamin A) Alfalfa meal Dairy by-products (whey, buttermilk) Brewery wastes Animal by-products Milling by-products (bran, middlings)

16 Alternative feeds Make use of local feed resources Scavengable Feed Resource Base Table scraps, harvest wastes Efficient waste disposal system Forage Seeds Green fodder Legume plants, tree legumes

17 Live protein Earthworms Insects (fly larvae, grasshoppers, crickets, termites, bees) Snails Disease vectors Collect live protein

18 Quality assurance Moldy feed is a concern Weed seeds Variability

19 Nutritional deficiency diseases DeficiencySymptom Riboflavin Curled toe paralysis Niacin Slipped tendon (perosis) Calcium or phosphorus Rickets Iron Anemia Iodine Goiter

20 Feed is the major cost of production Full-feeding recommended Weight of the feed required is at least twice the expected market weight of the birds

21 Water Chickens are 85% water Death in one day without water in hot weather Water should be clean and cool 100 broilers drink 28.8 liters on a 21 C day (7.6 gallons) (70 F) 100 broilers drink 47.3 liters on a 32 C day (12.5 gallons) (90 F)

22 Non-nutritive feed additives Medications: antibiotics, anticoccidials, insecticides, wormers Preservatives: antifungal Pigments: to add color to skin and egg yolks

23 Sources of poultry feeds: Prepare feed from local grain and feedstuffs Prepare feed from local grains/protein sources and imported concentrates Commercial feed

24 Feeding systems Scavenging birds Supplement diet Range birds get protein and vitamins from green forage Supplement with energy and minerals More supplementation if dry, fibrous vegetation Feeding a concentrate supplement with cheap, bulky feed

25 Pasture management Irrigate if possible Alfalfa, clover, local forages Self-feeding vs. cut and carry

26 Formulas for Feed Rations No simple answer Many different recipes are possible Nutrient requirements vary according to stage of production Starter, grower, finisher Type of poultry Broiler, layer, breeder, turkey, duck, geese Climate Ingredients vary in nutrient content Large manufacturers change formulation daily or weekly depending on price of ingredients

27 Free-Choice Cafeteria Feeding Feed in 3 separate containers Energy-rich Protein-rich Mineral-rich Birds can balance own diet

28 Feed Mixing Gather feed ingredients Grind ingredients Small ingredients need to be especially well-mixed Mix on flat surface or use concrete mixer Large manufacturers use mechanical mixers Produce mash, crumbles, or pellets Storage probably less than 2 months

Download ppt "Poultry Nutrition and Feeding ارائه از وبلاگ:"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google